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Math Noortmann
Luke D. Graham

104 Development and character of international criminal law The foundations of international criminal law were laid after the Second World War in the indictments of leaders and soldiers from Nazi Germany, soldiers from Japan, and the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials. After 1990 the conflicts in Yugoslavia and Rwanda led to the establishment of the Yugoslavia Tribunal and the

in The basics of international law
Abstract only
Cerwyn Moore

6 Criminality and war So far this book has focused on a range of issues related to narrative and interpretive IR, as ways into analysing contemporary violence. In doing so, attention has been drawn to different levels of analysis, the role of history in the Caucasus and Balkans, and different social, cultural and local forms of identification. In both Kosovo and Chechnya we see contract soldiers, special police units and federal army units fighting against armed resistance movements. The armed resistance movements were, however, made up of a multiplicity of

in Contemporary violence
The rise of cannabis smuggling
Stephen Snelders

less than a decade a successful illegal drug supply came into existence, connecting production in countries such as Lebanon, Morocco, and Afghanistan with the Netherlands and other countries. This chapter investigates the early and fundamental developments in cannabis smuggling up to the mid-1970s, the smugglers’ embeddedness in broader Dutch society and more specifically in the new hippie counterculture and longer-existing maritime and criminal cultures, and how and why smugglers succeeded in linking demand with supply from countries such as Lebanon and Morocco

in Drug smuggler nation
Ilias Bantekas

Introduction Chapter 1 examined the historical evolution of international humanitarian law, in particular the legal and political bases for the penalisation of infractions associated with this body of law. The interaction of law, politics and financial considerations have proved detrimental for staging criminal prosecutions, even to this day, but ultimately have not

in Principles of direct and superior responsibility in international humanitarian law
Synthetic drugs and subverting the state
Stephen Snelders

Cannabis, heroin, and cocaine markets prospered despite the attempts of the Dutch state to control them. The state's problems with drug markets only further increased as, from the mid-1960s, the drug regulatory regime was extended to other, synthetic drugs: hallucinogens, amphetamines, and MDMA and other substances known as XTC or Ecstasy. The prohibition of amphetamines and later of XTC especially offered new chances for criminal entrepreneurs. Moreover, criminal and chemical expertise combined to create a thriving underground economy of drug

in Drug smuggler nation
Anthony Musson
Edward Powell

The period covering the late thirteenth to the early fifteenth century was a crucial one in terms of the evolution of a practical and lasting system of criminal justice. 1 At its outset the general eyre was still in operation. This was an omnicompetent travelling court, which had periodically administered justice in the localities since the days of Henry II

in Crime, Law and Society in the Later Middle Ages
Margaret Brazier
Emma Cave
, and
Rob Heywood

10.1 Introduction In this chapter we examine criminal law and medical negligence, asking when a doctor’s malpractice engages criminal liability. Most instances of injury caused by medical error are dealt with under the civil law. However gross or culpable an act of negligence may be, negligence is not generally a crime in England unless made so

in Medicine, patients and the law
Marcela Iacub
Vinay Swamy

7 The new criminal law on sexuality The end of marriage as the juridico-sexual ideal, heretofore the primary feature of the framework of misdemeanors and crimes against morality, necessitated a clarification of the social values that these offenses were now supposed to protect. Of course, we know that the previous order did not only protect marriage but also other values, such as consent, sexual normality and a certain notion of purity or integrity when minors were involved. However, these values in the Code were subordinated to marriage, which appeared as the

in Through the keyhole
Anne Lagerwall

In the opening scene of the first episode of British TV series Black Earth Rising , 1 the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has just finished giving a conference and accepts a few questions from the audience. A black young adult asks her, rather daringly: Jay: What motivates you to vomit up all this neocolonialist bullshit? Moderator: You don’t have to answer this question … Prosecutor Ashby: I am motivated to see justice done, wherever the crime took place. Jay: Oh … it just so happens, all these crimes, they take place in Africa

in Cinematic perspectives on international law
Birgit Lang

4 Erich Wulffen and the case of the criminal Birgit Lang In 1927, the leading illustrated weekly Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung (BIZ) introduced its readers to the twenty-one most influential German criminologists of the day. Each was represented by a portrait photograph and a caption. The result was an iconography of experts in the burgeoning fields of studying, solving and writing about crime and criminals. Among the select group was Dr Erich Wulffen (1862–1936), Head of Department in the Saxon Ministry of Justice.1 The photo essay describes Wulffen as the

in A history of the case study