Unmasking coloniality/modernity and ‘imperial difference’ in post (real)socialist urban sites of remembrance
Miriam Friz Trzeciak
as being a more developed socialism. Conversely, the demolition of the building complex showed how the FRG has dealt with (real)socialist remains, discursively positioning East Germans as the internal backward Other of West Germany.
Political-economic dimensions of (real)socialist modernity/coloniality: contract work in the Volkseigene Betriebe Textilkombinat Cottbus
Our second strategy to contribute to the decolonisation of Cottbus refers to the political-economic dimension of (real)socialist modernity/coloniality. Using the
What were the distinctive cultures of decolonisation that emerged in the years between 1945 and 1970, and what can they uncover about the complexities of the ‘end of empire’ as a process? Cultures of Decolonisation brings together visual, literary and material cultures within one volume in order to explore this question. The volume reveals the diverse ways in which cultures were active in wider political, economic and social change, working as crucial gauges, microcosms, and agents of decolonisation. Individual chapters focus on architecture, theatre, museums, heritage sites, fine art, and interior design alongside institutions such as artists’ groups, language agencies and the Royal Mint in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Europe. Drawing on a range of disciplinary perspectives, these contributions offer revealing case studies for those researching decolonisation at all levels across the humanities and social sciences. The collection demonstrates the transnational character of cultures of decolonisation (and of decolonisation itself), and illustrates the value of comparison – between different sorts of cultural forms and different places – in understanding the nature of this dramatic and wide-reaching geopolitical change. Cultures of Decolonisation illustrates the value of engaging with the complexities of decolonisation as enacted and experienced by a broad range of actors beyond ‘flag independence’ and the realm of high politics. In the process it makes an important contribution to the theoretical, methodological and empirical diversification of the historiography of the end of empire.
Decolonising the Hajj details the transformation of the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) from Nigeria over the course of the twentieth century. What for centuries had been a long, perilous overland journey from which many never returned became a short, highly regulated airlift to and from Saudi Arabia by the early 1960s. The book argues that British colonial efforts to control the pilgrimage were minimalist in nature, largely centred on funnelling pilgrims toward agricultural labour in Sudan and repatriating destitute pilgrims from the Hijaz in ways that generally preserved the traditional overland pilgrimage. More significant transformations occurred in the context of decolonisation, when Nigerian nationalist politicians took over the internal mechanisms of the state at the same time that the European imperial order was unravelling globally. The outcome was a more proactive approach to pilgrimage management that slowly but surely directed the pilgrim traffic away from the overland routes and toward air travel as the most politically, economically, and diplomatically expedient way to conduct the Hajj in a post-colonial world of independent nation-states. In charting this trajectory in the specific context of Nigeria, the book demonstrates the importance of decolonisation as a transformational force in the history of the Hajj while simultaneously situating the Hajj as a valuable case study for examining transnational implications of global decolonisation.
In 1962, Congo was catapulted into the international consciousness as the scene of conflict and confusion when a civil and constitutional crisis erupted just a week after the independence ceremony. The breakdown of law and order began when the Congolese army, the Force Publique, mutinied against their Belgian officers, leading to violence and chaos in the capital Leopoldville. This book reinterprets the role of the United Nations (UN) Organization in this conflict by presenting a multidimensional view of how the UN operated in response to the crisis. The United States (US) and Britain were directly involved with formulating UN Congo policy, through an examination of the Anglo-American relationship. The book analyses how the crisis became positioned as a lightning rod in the interaction of decolonisation with the Cold War, and wider relations between North and South. It establishes why, in 1960, the outbreak of the Congo crisis and its successive internationalisation through UN intervention was an important question for Anglo-American relations. The book highlights the changing nature of the UN from 1960 to 1961. It focuses on the emergence of a new US policy in New York. Discussing the role of United Nations activities in the Congo (Operation des Nations Unies au Congo), it explains why military incursions into Katanga in September, and again in December of 1961, proved damaging to the Anglo-American relationship. The invigoration of the Secretariat, demands of the Afro-Asian bloc, Operation UNOKAT, and efforts to construct a Western friendly regime in the Congo are also discussed.
As imperial political authority was increasingly challenged, sometimes with violence, locally recruited police forces became the front-line guardians of alien law and order. This book presents a study that looks at the problems facing the imperial police forces during the acute political dislocations following decolonization in the British Empire. It examines the role and functions of the colonial police forces during the process of British decolonisation and the transfer of powers in eight colonial territories. The book emphasises that the British adopted a 'colonial' solution to their problems in policing insurgency in Ireland. The book illustrates how the recruitment of Turkish Cypriot policemen to maintain public order against Greek Cypriot insurgents worsened the political situation confronting the British and ultimately compromised the constitutional settlement for the transfer powers. In Cyprus and Malaya, the origins and ethnic backgrounds of serving policemen determined the effectiveness which enabled them to carry out their duties. In 1914, the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) of Ireland was the instrument of a government committed to 'Home Rule' or national autonomy for Ireland. As an agency of state coercion and intelligence-gathering, the police were vital to Britain's attempts to hold on to power in India, especially against the Indian National Congress during the agitational movements of the 1920s and 1930s. In April 1926, the Palestine police force was formally established. The shape of a rapidly rising rate of urban crime laid the major challenge confronting the Kenya Police.
(Benjamin Zephaniah, 2009 )
As I began to discuss in the
earlier chapters, another reason for introducing conceptualisations of
translation is that through their translations and foreignisations,
diasporas have the potential to become agents of decolonisation in both
the homeland and the new home. Diasporas bring various disruptions and
Britain, France and the Rhodesian problem, 1965–1969
A transnational decolonisation:
Britain, France and the Rhodesian problem,
In 2010, while Francophone Africa was commemorating fifty years of independence, Zimbabwe celebrated a smaller, though by no means less significant,
anniversary. 18 April 2010 marked thirty years since the midnight ceremony,
attended by Prince Charles and Bob Marley, when the red, green, black and
gold flag of Zimbabwe rose for the first time (The Times, 1980, 18 April). It
was therefore two decades after the independence of Francophone Africa that
Immigration, welfare and housing in Britain and France, 1945–1974
Andrew S. Thompson
Studies in Imperialism – the reciprocal influences and complex
connections that arose from the traffic of people between metropolis and
colony – to explore immigrant welfare systems during and after
decolonisation. It is explicitly comparative, framed around the
experiences of Britain and France, and focuses on the crucial matter of
immigrant housing, an issue at once economic, political, social and
In the 1940s, the British king, the Dutch queen and the Japanese emperor reigned
over colonial possessions in Asia, whose ‘protected’ indigenous monarchs
included Indian and Himalayan maharajas, Shan princes in Burma, and sultans in
the Malay states and the Dutch East Indies, as well as the Vietnamese emperor
and the Cambodian and Lao king in the French republican empire, and the ‘white
raja’ of Sarawak. Decolonisation posed the question about the form of government
to be adopted in successor states to the colonial empires and about the fate of
local dynasties. As their possessions gained independence, the European and
Japanese monarchies also had to adapt to a post-imperial world. This collection
of original essays by an international group of distinguished historians argues
that the institution of monarchy, and individual monarchs, occupied key roles in
the process of decolonisation. It analyses the role of monarchy (both foreign
and indigenous) in the late colonial period and with decolonisation. It examines
the post-colonial fate of thrones buffeted and sometimes destroyed by
republicanism and radicalism. It assesses the ways that surviving dynasties and
the descendants of abolished dynasties have adapted to new social and political
orders, and it considers the legacies left by extant and defunct dynasties in
This book proposes a novel way of conceptualising diaspora by examining how diasporas do translation and decolonisation. It critically engages with, and goes beyond, two dominant theorisations of diaspora, which are coined ‘diaspora as an ideal-type approach’ and ‘diaspora as hybridity approach’. If diaspora is to have analytical purchase, it should illuminate a specific angle of migration or migrancy. The aspect defended in this book is how diasporas do translation and decolonisation. The book explores such issues by conceiving of diasporas as the archetypal translators, who put new identities, perspectives and ideologies into circulation. They can domesticate, rewrite, erase and foreignise. They bring disruptions and destabilisations. The book examines such processes by advancing a variety of useful conceptual tools and heuristic devices for investigating diasporas, such as ‘diaspora as rewriting and transformation’, ‘diaspora as erasure and exclusion’, ‘diaspora as a tension between foreignisation and domestication’, ‘radical inclusion’ and ‘radical remembering’, with a specific focus on and examples of diasporas in the Global North. It also provides a detailed empirical study of Kurdish diaspora in Europe and unpacks how ethno-political translations of their identity are central for the transnational battles of Kurds, including how they undo colonisation, carrying out both foreignisations and domestications in their engagements with the Global North, and exposing links between their predicament and Europe. Additionally, the book considers the backlash to diasporas of colour in the Global North through an examination of the increasing discourses of ‘anti-multiculturalism’ and ‘the left-behind’/‘traditional’ working class.