Transnational productions and practices, 1945–70
Editors: Ruth Craggs and Claire Wintle

What were the distinctive cultures of decolonisation that emerged in the years between 1945 and 1970, and what can they uncover about the complexities of the ‘end of empire’ as a process? Cultures of Decolonisation brings together visual, literary and material cultures within one volume in order to explore this question. The volume reveals the diverse ways in which cultures were active in wider political, economic and social change, working as crucial gauges, microcosms, and agents of decolonisation.

Individual chapters focus on architecture, theatre, museums, heritage sites, fine art, and interior design alongside institutions such as artists’ groups, language agencies and the Royal Mint in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Europe. Drawing on a range of disciplinary perspectives, these contributions offer revealing case studies for those researching decolonisation at all levels across the humanities and social sciences.

The collection demonstrates the transnational character of cultures of decolonisation (and of decolonisation itself), and illustrates the value of comparison – between different sorts of cultural forms and different places – in understanding the nature of this dramatic and wide-reaching geopolitical change. Cultures of Decolonisation illustrates the value of engaging with the complexities of decolonisation as enacted and experienced by a broad range of actors beyond ‘flag independence’ and the realm of high politics. In the process it makes an important contribution to the theoretical, methodological and empirical diversification of the historiography of the end of empire.

America, Britain and the United Nations during the Congo crisis 1960– 1964

In 1962, Congo was catapulted into the international consciousness as the scene of conflict and confusion when a civil and constitutional crisis erupted just a week after the independence ceremony. The breakdown of law and order began when the Congolese army, the Force Publique, mutinied against their Belgian officers, leading to violence and chaos in the capital Leopoldville. This book reinterprets the role of the United Nations (UN) Organization in this conflict by presenting a multidimensional view of how the UN operated in response to the crisis. The United States (US) and Britain were directly involved with formulating UN Congo policy, through an examination of the Anglo-American relationship. The book analyses how the crisis became positioned as a lightning rod in the interaction of decolonisation with the Cold War, and wider relations between North and South. It establishes why, in 1960, the outbreak of the Congo crisis and its successive internationalisation through UN intervention was an important question for Anglo-American relations. The book highlights the changing nature of the UN from 1960 to 1961. It focuses on the emergence of a new US policy in New York. Discussing the role of United Nations activities in the Congo (Operation des Nations Unies au Congo), it explains why military incursions into Katanga in September, and again in December of 1961, proved damaging to the Anglo-American relationship. The invigoration of the Secretariat, demands of the Afro-Asian bloc, Operation UNOKAT, and efforts to construct a Western friendly regime in the Congo are also discussed.

Politics, Nationalism and the Police, 1917–65

As imperial political authority was increasingly challenged, sometimes with violence, locally recruited police forces became the front-line guardians of alien law and order. This book presents a study that looks at the problems facing the imperial police forces during the acute political dislocations following decolonization in the British Empire. It examines the role and functions of the colonial police forces during the process of British decolonisation and the transfer of powers in eight colonial territories. The book emphasises that the British adopted a 'colonial' solution to their problems in policing insurgency in Ireland. The book illustrates how the recruitment of Turkish Cypriot policemen to maintain public order against Greek Cypriot insurgents worsened the political situation confronting the British and ultimately compromised the constitutional settlement for the transfer powers. In Cyprus and Malaya, the origins and ethnic backgrounds of serving policemen determined the effectiveness which enabled them to carry out their duties. In 1914, the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) of Ireland was the instrument of a government committed to 'Home Rule' or national autonomy for Ireland. As an agency of state coercion and intelligence-gathering, the police were vital to Britain's attempts to hold on to power in India, especially against the Indian National Congress during the agitational movements of the 1920s and 1930s. In April 1926, the Palestine police force was formally established. The shape of a rapidly rising rate of urban crime laid the major challenge confronting the Kenya Police.

The relationship between Scotland and the British Empire in the twentieth century was wide-ranging. This book represents ground-breaking research in the field of Scotland's complex and often-changing relationship with the British Empire in the period. The contours of Scottish intercontinental migration were significantly redrawn during the twentieth century as a consequence of two world wars. The book reveals the apparent means used to assess the complexities of linking places of birth to migration and to various modern attempts to appeal to ethnic diasporas. The strange case of jute brings out some paradoxical dimensions to Scotland's relationship with England and the empire in the twentieth century. The book argues that the Scottish immigrants' perceptions of class, race and gender were equally important for interpreting the range of their experiences in the British Columbia. The mainstay of organised anti-colonialist critique and mobilisation, in Scotland lay in socialist and social democratic groups. The book examines how the Scottish infantry regiments, and their popular and political constituencies, responded to rapidly reducing circumstances in the era of decolonisation. Newspapers such as The Scotsman, The Glasgow Herald, and the Daily Record brought Africa to the Scottish public with their coverage of Mau Mau insurgency and the Suez Crisis. The book looks into the Scottish cultural and political revival by examining the contributions of David Livingstone. It also discusses the period of the Hamilton by-election of 1967 and the three referenda of 1979, 1997 and 2014 on devolution and independence.

Modern housing,expatriate practitioners and the Volta River Project in decolonising Ghana

have contributed to the recent reappraisal of ‘matter’ itself, and its ambivalent role in decolonisation. 1 No longer an ‘undifferentiated externality standing apart from the social or cultural’, the materiality of things has increasingly been included in equations considering the agency of both human and non-human associations. 2 As an actant itself, the designed environment is

in Cultures of decolonisation
Britain, France and the Rhodesian problem, 1965–1969

11 A transnational decolonisation: Britain, France and the Rhodesian problem, 1965–1969 Joanna Warson In 2010, while Francophone Africa was commemorating fifty years of independence, Zimbabwe celebrated a smaller, though by no means less significant, anniversary. 18 April 2010 marked thirty years since the midnight ceremony, attended by Prince Charles and Bob Marley, when the red, green, black and gold flag of Zimbabwe rose for the first time (The Times, 1980, 18 April). It was therefore two decades after the independence of Francophone Africa that white

in Francophone Africa at fifty
Immigration, welfare and housing in Britain and France, 1945–1974

Studies in Imperialism – the reciprocal influences and complex connections that arose from the traffic of people between metropolis and colony – to explore immigrant welfare systems during and after decolonisation. It is explicitly comparative, framed around the experiences of Britain and France, and focuses on the crucial matter of immigrant housing, an issue at once economic, political, social and

in Writing imperial histories
Exile from French North Africa

against the Glaoui by the rector of Cairo’s Al-Azhar University). The spiriting away of the sultan and his sons amounted to no less than kidnapping. His removal sparked militancy among anti-colonialists in France, where the distinguished novelist François Mauriac chaired a support committee. Mohammed’s banishment greatly enhanced his reputation among nationalists, and among promoters of decolonisation in

in Banished potentates
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Reframing cultures of decolonisation

constitutional shifts from a pre-war ‘white’ club into an egalitarian multiracial family. The institute’s architects had opted for innovation and change, utilising a futuristic, curving, tent-like roof and slender concrete beams to provide unobstructed views across the exhibition hall inside. The fabric of the building itself was intended to represent collaboration and equality in a decolonised world, with the

in Cultures of decolonisation
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Ralph Hotere and ‘New Commonwealth Internationalism’

The second half of the twentieth century was an era of decolonisation, with the formal withdrawal of colonial powers taking place around the globe, and colonised populations everywhere turning their attention to the great project of the ‘decolonisation of the imagination’. 1 Settler colonial societies, identified by mass European settlement that displaces

in Cultures of decolonisation