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From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

Transcendence, sacrifice, and aspiration

This innovative and timely reassessment of political theology opens new lines of critical investigation into the intersections of religion and politics in contemporary Asia. Political Theologies and Development in Asia pioneers the theo-political analysis of Asian politics and in so doing moves beyond a focus on the (Post-)Christian West that has to date dominated scholarly discussions on this theme. It also locates ‘development’ as a vital focus for critical investigations into Asian political theologies. The volume includes contributions by leading anthropologists, sociologists, and political scientists. Each chapter brings new theoretical approaches into conversation with detailed empirical case studies grounded in modern Asia. Not only does the volume illustrate the value and import of this approach to a diverse set of contemporary Asian societies and religions, but it also provides a forceful argument for why political theology itself requires this broader horizon to remain relevant and critical. The focus on ‘development’ – conceptualised broadly here as a set of modern transnational networks of ideas and practices of improvement that connect geographically disparate locations¬¬ – enables a fresh and critical analysis of the ways in which political theology is imagined, materialised, and contested both within and beyond particular nation-states. Investigating the sacred dimensions of power through concepts of transcendence, sacrifice, and victimhood, and aspiration and salvation, the chapters in this collection demonstrate how European and Asian modernities are bound together through genealogical, institutional, and theo-political entanglements, as well as a long history of global interactions.

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Geographical specialisation and inter-dependency
Jon Stobart

the first industrial region 3 uneven development Uneven development: geographical specialisation and inter-dependency New discoveries in metals, mines and minerals, new undertakings in trade, engines and manufactures . . . make England especially show a new and different face in many places.1 If England was, to use Peter Mathias’s phrase, the ‘First Industrial Nation’, then north-west England can lay strong claim to be the first industrial region. There are many English regions with a longer industrial history, some of which led in terms of certain key

in The first industrial region
From import-substitution industrialization to economic liberalization
Sagarika Dutt

4 Economic development: from importsubstitution industrialization to economic liberalization When India became independent in 1947 Indian leaders were aware that India was a developing country even though the concept of development was not given sufficient international recognition before the launch of the UN Development Decades in 1961. This chapter will comment on the diversity of approaches to development, although its main focus will be the Indian government’s policies. However, one cannot understand these policies without some knowledge of their antecedents

in India in a globalized world
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Gervase Rosser

belongings the assessors rated at less than £ 1. And by definition such records omit altogether those, unquestionably present in significant number, with nothing. Of all the fault-lines which are evident in our sources, it is not easy to identify a single one which had primacy in determining social development. It is hard, not only because the lines of tension were so diverse but because the life

in Towns in medieval England
Practice and policy lessons from Northern Ireland and the Border Counties
Author: Sandra Buchanan

Transforming Conflict examines lessons learned from the Northern Ireland and Border Counties conflict transformation process through social and economic development and their consequent impacts and implications for practice and policymaking, with a range of functional recommendations produced for other regions emerging from and seeking to transform violent conflict. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the region’s transformation activity, largely amongst grassroots actors, enabled by a number of specific funding programmes, namely the International Fund for Ireland, Peace I and II and INTERREG I, II and IIIA. These programmes have facilitated conflict transformation over more than two decades, presenting a case ripe for lesson sharing. In focusing on the politics of the socioeconomic activities that underpinned the elite negotiations of the peace process, key theoretical transformation concepts are firstly explored, followed by an examination of the social and economic context of Northern Ireland and the Border Counties. The three programmes and their impacts are then assessed before considering what policy lessons can be learned and what recommendations can be made for practice. This is underpinned by a range of semi-structured interviews and the author’s own experience as a project promoter through these programmes in the Border Counties for more than a decade.

Drawing on nearly a decade of wide-ranging, multidisciplinary research undertaken with young people and adults living and working in urban communities in Zambia, this jointly-authored book extends existing understandings of the use of sport to contribute to global development agendas has burgeoned over the last two decades. The book’s locally-centred and contextualized analysis represents an important departure from both the internationalist and evaluation-orientated research that has predominated in global sport for development. Offering wide-ranging historical, political, economic and social contextualization, it examines how a key period in the expansion of the sport for development sector unfolded in Zambia; considers the significance of varying degrees of integration and partnership practices between sport for development and development agencies at different levels; and outlines approaches to the provision of sport for development activities in various communities. Detailed examination of the lives, experiences and responses of young people involved in these activities, drawn from their own accounts, is a key feature of the book. Concluding reflections identify possibilities for enhancing understanding and improving research and evidence through methodologies which ‘localise global sport for development’. The book’s unique approach and content will be highly relevant to academic researchers and students studying sport and development across many different contexts.

Kader Asmal

15 Peace, multiculturalism and development Professor Kader Asmal Introduction Professor Kader Asmal spoke on the 4 February 2008 about the preoccupation of a lifetime of academic study, activism, work on constitutional ideals and public service – which was a passion for and commitment to human rights, equality, justice and development. He spoke from his own experience of life in a system that had lacked basic justice and equality: apartheid South Africa; he spoke as one who had been obliged to leave in order to find opportunity and where he worked diligently to

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Sagarika Dutt

6 Alternative approaches to ‘development’ This chapter explores the argument that ‘development’ is much more than economic growth and involves a process of democratization that promotes the welfare of the people. Chapter 2 focused on the Indian constitution and political system and argued that, although British colonial rule led to the end of feudalism and to modernization in the area of government and politics, the British Indian state was not a democratic state. The democratization of Indian politics began with the birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885

in India in a globalized world
From model to symbol?
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

EUD1 10/28/03 2:38 PM Page 1 1 EU development cooperation: from model to symbol? Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organisation. It entertains formalised relations with almost all other (groups of ) states. Although much of its attention is devoted to internal integration, obviously the European Union cannot and does not wish to be an isolated entity. Instead it has expressed the desire and ambition to take up a prominent place in the working of

in EU development cooperation