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Work camps in Britain, 1880–1940
Author: John Field

The book provides a comprehensive account of work camp movements in Britain before 1939, based on thorough archival research, and on the reminiscences of participants. It starts with their origins in the labour colony movement of the 1880s, and examines the subsequent fate of labour colonies for the unemployed, and their broadening out as disciplined and closed therapeutic communities for such groups as alcoholics, epileptics, tuberculosis sufferers and the ‘feeble-minded’. It goes on to examine utopian colonies, inspired by anarchist, socialist and feminist ideas, and designed to develop the skills and resources needed for a new world. After the Great War, unemployed camps increasingly focused on training for emigration, a movement inspired by notions of a global British national identity, as well as marked by sharp gender divisions. The gender divisions were further enhanced after 1929, when the world economic crisis closed down options for male emigration. A number of anti-industrial movements developed work camps, inspired by pacifist, nationalist or communitarian ideals. Meanwhile, government turned increasingly to work camps as a way of training unemployed men through heavy manual labour. Women by contrast were provided with a domesticating form of training, designed to prepare them for a life in domestic service. The book argues that work camps can be understood primarily as instrumental communities, concerned with reshaping the male body, and reasserting particularistic male identities, while achieving broad social policy and economic policy goals.

Jayne Lloyd

relationships with everyday objects and certain acts of domestic labour became meaningful acts of self-care for an elderly care home resident living with dementia who participated in the project. Fisher and Tronto define caring about as involving ‘paying attention to our world in such a way that we focus on continuity, maintenance, and repair’ ( 1990 : 40). They define caregiving as the labour involved in that maintenance and repair and include objects in the scope of what can be cared for, but it is not the focus of their research. In this chapter, I argue that the care of

in Performing care
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Family, memory and modernity
Ben Jones

working class household economies and examine the significant continuities which existed between the modern council estates and older districts in terms of cultures of economic and emotional resourcefulness. Close attention will also be given to the extent to which changes in domestic technologies and amenities affected patterns of domestic labour and leisure. As will be seen, technological changes in the home had an impact upon the use of leisure time, but largely failed to change long-standing gendered patterns of work and behaviour. Furthermore, material continuities

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
The influence of Florence Nightingale on Southern nurses during the American Civil War
Barbara Maling

business’ was a model for nursing reorganisation based on a blending of concepts from religious sisterhoods, military hierarchies, Nightingale’s understanding of medical theories and a belief that a woman’s nature made her a more suitable care-giver than a man.12 Nevertheless, it is evident that Chesnut held Nightingale in high esteem and shared with her some cultural values such as a woman’s innate nature for nursing.13 The concept of nursing being ‘natural’ to women was embedded in nineteenth-century American culture where nursing was considered a domestic labour for

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Sex, domesticity and discipline in the King’s African Rifles, 1902–1964
Timothy Parsons

officers also believed that a married soldier was less likely to become drunk and that a wife improved his overall health. Not only could she be examined to ensure that she was free of disease, but she also looked after her husband’s domestic needs. African wives cooked and cleaned uniforms, equipment and barracks. Between the wars, the KAR was so dependent on the domestic labour of women that African NCOs

in Guardians of empire
Maternal crimes and illegitimacy
Ginger S. Frost

a second major theme in these cases. In each category, mothers were overwhelmingly young and employed in poorly-paid work, mostly domestic labour. The 58 Illegitimacy in English law and society, 1860–1930 youth of the mothers in the cases of newborns was striking. I have ages in 202 of these cases, and of these 23.3 per cent were teenagers and 47 per cent were in their early twenties. Thus, 70 per cent of these mothers were under the age of twenty-three. In the 115 infanticides with a listed age, 16.5 per cent were teenagers and 45.2 per cent were in their

in Illegitimacy in English law and society,1860–1930
The connected histories of Darwin and Singapore, 1860s–1930s
Claire Lowrie

-owning south, where ‘typical’ white families were able to feel part of the aristocracy due to their power over black domestic servants. 121 The ready availability of relatively cheap domestic labour in tropical colonies; the necessity of managing the ravages of the climate; and the pressure of adapting to local customs were other reasons which colonists gave for employing multiple servants not only in

in Masters and servants
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Labour, gender, authorship, 1750–1830

This book challenges influential accounts about gender and the novel by revealing the complex ways in which labour informed the lives and writing of a number of middling and genteel women authors publishing between 1750 and 1830. It provides a seam of texts for exploring the vexed relationship between gender, work and writing. The four chapters that follow contain contextualised case studies of the treatment of manual, intellectual and domestic labour in the work and careers of Sarah Scott, Charlotte Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft and women applicants to the writers' charity, the Literary Fund. By making women's work visible in our studies of female-authored fiction of the period, the book reveals the crucial role that these women played in articulating debates about the gendered division of labour, the (in)compatibility of women's domestic and professional lives, and the status and true value of women's work, which shaped eighteenth-century culture as surely as they do our own.

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Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

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Activism and design in Italy
Author: Ilaria Vanni

Precarious objects is a book about activism and design. The context is the changes in work and employment from permanent to precarious arrangements in the twenty-first century in Italy. The book presents design interventions that address precarity as a defuturing force affecting political, social and material conditions. Precarious objects shows how design objects, called here ‘orientation devices’, recode political communication and reorient how things are imagined, produced and circulated. It also shows how design as a practice can reconfigure material conditions and prefigure ways to repair some of the effects of precarity on everyday life. Three microhistories illustrate activist repertoires that bring into play design, and design practices that are grounded in activism. While the vitality, experimental nature and traffic between theory and praxis of social movements in Italy have consistently attracted the interest of activists, students and researchers in diverse fields, there exists little in the area of design research. This is a study of design activism at the intersection of design theory and cultural research for researchers and students interested in design studies, cultural studies, social movements and Italian studies.