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Disintegration via monetary union
Author: Tom Gallagher

Cooperation and trust were increasingly scarce commodities in the inner councils of the EU. This book explores why the boldest initiative in the sixty-year quest to achieve a borderless Europe has exploded in the face of the EU. A close examination of each stage of the EU financial emergency that offers evidence that the European values that are supposed to provide solidarity within the twenty eight-member EU in good times and bad are flimsy and thinly distributed. The book aims to show that it is possible to view the difficulties of the EU as rooted in much longer-term decision-making. It begins with an exploration of the long-term preparations that were made to create a single currency encompassing a large part of the European Union. The book then examines the different ways in which the European Union seized the initiative from the European nation-state, from the formation of the Coal and Steel Community to the Maastricht Treaty. It focuses on the role of France and Germany in the EU. Difficulties that have arisen for the EU as it has tried to foster a new European consciousness are discussed next. The increasingly strained relationship between the EU and the democratic process is also examined. The book discusses the evolution of the crisis in the eurozone and the shortcomings which have impeded the EU from bringing it under control. It ends with a portrait of a European Union in 2013 wracked by mutual suspicions.

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Fragmented structures in a complex system
Andreas Maurer

of European integration impact on the relationship between Germany and the Union? The interinstitutional set-up of German EU policy-making features a hierarchy of policy-making powers and functions according to the institutions involved as well as to the different phases of the EC/EU policy-making cycle. Evidently there are ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in terms of participation in EC/EU decision-making.22 How has this setting evolved over time? Germany is a federal state. Owing to this constitutionalised structure collective players intervene at different levels in the

in Fifteen into one?

How does the European Union affect devolution and nationalist conflict in member states? Does the EU reduce the scope of regional self-government or enhance it? Does it promote conflict or cooperation among territorial entities? These are pressing questions in Spanish politics, where devolution has been an important tool for managing nationalist disputes, and for the Basque Country, where protracted and sometimes violent nationalist conflicts persist. Addressing these issues, this book explores prospects for an autonomous Basque role in EU politics; institutional arrangements for autonomous community participation in EU decision making; Basque government alliances with other regions and the EU's supranational bodies; EU incentives for collaboration among Basque and central state authorities; the impact of EU decisions on politically sensitive Basque competencies; and the incidence of EU issues in nationalist disputes. It presents a theoretical framework for analysing the impact of the EU on regional power.

A framework of EU foreign policy change
Author: Nikki Ikani

This book provides readers with an analytical framework that serves to investigate and explain how the EU adapts its foreign policy in the wake of crisis. While a range of studies dedicated to foreign policy stability and change exist for the US context, such analyses are rare for the assessment and measurement of foreign policy change at the European Union level. This book explores a range of theories of (foreign) policy change and assesses their value for explaining EU foreign policy change. Changes to EU foreign policy, this study proposes based upon an in-depth investigation of recent episodes in which foreign policy has changed, are not captured well using existing typologies of policy change from other fields of study.

Offering a new perspective on the question of change, this book proposes an analytical framework focused on how institutions, institutional ‘plasticity’ and temporal context impact on the decision-making process leading to change. It thus provides readers with the tools to analyse, explain and conceptualise the various change outcomes in EU foreign policy. In so doing, it sets the theoretical approach of historical institutionalism to work in an EU foreign policy setting. Based on a rich empirical analysis of five case studies it provides a revised typology of EU foreign policy change. It proposes two novel forms of foreign policy change, symbolic change and constructive ambiguity, as frequent and important outcomes of the EU decision-making process.

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The emergence of a new major actor in the European arena
Felipe Basabe Lloréns

unanimously by all political parties and the different societal actors.3 Such a broad social and political consensus is to be found at the basis of most of the features of the Spanish administrative structure and participation model in the EC/EU decision-making process. Such broad support for the process of European integration has, however, experienced a relative decline in recent years owing to political conflicts on issues such as fisheries, industrial reconversion, reform of olive oil tariffs, and CMO.4 Also, the rise of interest groups – still on a minor scale – and

in Fifteen into one?
Abstract only
Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

directions. Using the ‘image and venue’ approach allows us to capture the interaction between different institutional venues over time and brings two new dimensions to the ‘multi-level governance’ model. First, rather than picturing the static ‘multi-actorness’ of the EU decision-making process, a 2997 The European Union and culture 26/2/07 09:31 Conclusion Page 153 153 dynamic model can shed light on how action by one institutional venue can induce action by another one. Second, it becomes clear that these interactions do not only characterise the EU decision-making

in The European Union and culture
Open Access (free)
Smooth adaptation to European values and institutions
Teija Tiilikainen

domestic EU agenda and this issue was emphasised at the IGC.5 The Finnish government consequently promoted a firmer EU position in the fight against unemployment. In the IGC, the government emphasised other policy areas with a clear connection to Nordic values such as openness and transparency in EU decision-making, the environment, equality between the sexes, and social policy. Institutional questions have been adopted with a more cautious attitude, however. In addition to these general political goals, the Finnish government has taken pains to launch a political

in Fifteen into one?
Abstract only
Lessons for future reform
Scott James

adaptation, nor account for the extent of convergence between the two networks since 1997. Using the four modes of Europeanisation, the study sought to identify the precise mechanism through which European integration exerted a common causal effect. First, the effective obligations of EU membership have contributed directly to functional convergence with respect to: the expansion of the permanent representation in Brussels and participation in the EU decision-making process, which mirrored the periodic increase in EU competence; the formation and growth of domestic

in Managing Europe from home
Scott James

-of-fit model in particular focuses exclusively on the implementation stage of this iterative process, ignoring the extent to which national executives play a key role in negotiation and decision making at the EU level, and thus shape the way in which they will later have to adapt (Börzel 2002: 195). Even the absence of domestic change may not necessarily be taken as evidence that Europeanisation has not occurred, as member states may have successfully lobbied the EU decision-making process to such an extent as to minimise the misfit between European and domestic legislation

in Managing Europe from home
Gavin Barrett

empowerment of national parliaments appears politically popular –​but is it also systemically sensible? Some have argued that the marginalisation of member state legislatures is an inherent effect of the system of executive federalism at the core of the EU’s system of governance, and therefore an unavoidable phenomenon, however regrettable it might be.4 Others argue that politicisation of EU decision-​ making is inevitable and necessary and that national parliaments must play a role.5 Whatever view is correct, if the role of national parliaments in EU policy-​ making is to

in The evolving role of national parliaments in the European Union