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Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.

Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this truer than in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. It both reflects popular attitudes, ideas and preconceptions and it generates support for selected views and opinions. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times: in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. It seeks to examine in detail the articulation and diffusion of imperialism in the field of juvenile literature by stressing its pervasiveness across boundaries of class, nation and gender. It analyses the production, distribution and marketing of imperially-charged juvenile fiction, stressing the significance of the Victorians' discovery of adolescence, technological advance and educational reforms as the context of the great expansion of such literature. An overview of the phenomenon of Robinson Crusoe follows, tracing the process of its transformation into a classic text of imperialism and imperial masculinity for boys. The imperial commitment took to the air in the form of the heroic airmen of inter-war fiction. The book highlights that athleticism, imperialism and militarism become enmeshed at the public schools. It also explores the promotion of imperialism and imperialist role models in fiction for girls, particularly Girl Guide stories.

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John M. MacKenzie

foundation of the Boy’s Brigade in 1883 and culminating in Baden-Powell’s Boy Scouts in 1908. 20 It was expressed too in the nationalist and militarist movements of Edwardian times, which are often characterised as right wing, but which in fact drew support from across the political spectrum. 21 This capacity of an imperial nationalism to create some semblance of unity across class

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
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Matt Cole

relationship with the Liberal Party in a way which was vital to his political career. Liberal Clubs were established in Victorian and Edwardian times as gentlemen’s or working men’s social clubs committed to supporting the cause by raising funds, hosting meetings, providing committee rooms and staff for elections, or simply offering a congenial social base all year round for people sympathetic to the Liberal Party. Most were members of the National Union of Liberal Clubs (NULC), which had representation on the Liberal Party Council, and whose rules confirmed their objective

in Richard Wainwright, the Liberals and Liberal Democrats
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John M. MacKenzie and Nigel R. Dalziel

climate than Canada; some also found the prospect of employing African servants at cheap wages appealing. But it is also true that by late Victorian and Edwardian times the mining revolution, war and reconstruction, urbanisation, the expansion of education and the building of harbours and railway lines set up an insatiable demand for middle-class migrants. Moreover, because of the existence of black

in The Scots in South Africa
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John M. MacKenzie

. It has long been said that the English were far behind their continental, particularly German, neighbours in scientific and technical training. Prince Albert commented on this deficiency and it continued to be a source of anxiety to the promoters of National Efficiency in Edwardian times and to the many science professors who were convinced that the continuing and exclusive concentration on classical

in Imperialism and the natural world
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John M. MacKenzie

hands of dominant and reasonably well-qualified staff (if small in numbers and not yet fully professionalised). By Edwardian times, the staff base had expanded and there was a move towards the creation of departments, reflecting the greater delineation and progressive subdivision of disciplines. Scientific respectability grew, particularly in league with colonial universities founded in that period (in

in Museums and empire
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Michael Brown and Joanne Begiato

. Mangan and Callum McKenzie, Militarism, Hunting, Imperialism: ‘Blooding’ the Martial Male (London: Routledge, 2010); John M. Mackenzie, ‘The Imperial Pioneer and Hunter and the British Masculine Stereotype in Late Victorian and Edwardian Times’, in J. A. Mangan and James Walvin (eds), Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800– 1940 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991), pp. 176–98. 11 The literature on ‘shell shock’ and war neuroses in the First World War is vast, but, for a recent account, see Tracey Loughran, Shell

in Martial masculinities
Matt Cole

. In Colne Valley, individual women activists were the thread which linked the Liberalism of the previous century to Wainwright’s time, and their organisation had survived the downturn in Liberal support. Four months before Wainwright’s adoption as candidate for the Colne Valley, the Slaithwaite and Linthwaite Women’s Liberal Association held a celebration to mark the eightyninth birthday of Mrs. Shaw, a life-long Liberal described by WLA Secretary Miss Furniss (herself a member since Edwardian times) as ‘an example of a living faith in Liberalism’.35 Two years later

in Richard Wainwright, the Liberals and Liberal Democrats
Anna Killick

but it is another world. It is a conservation area and has an old-fashioned, ‘village’-style sign depicting a parent walking with their child, saying ‘welcome to Church district’. The streets contain a couple of classical grey stone spired churches and lots of huge trees, chestnuts and beeches. Houses are mainly detached, owner-occupied, built from Edwardian times through to the 1950s. The houses in Rachel’s street are double-fronted, each with a front door that usually has a stone porch, from which you can peer into the bay window on either side. The trees and

in Rigged