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British colony, imperial capital
Author: James Whidden

The military occupation of Egypt exposed the British government to charges of self-interest and the betrayal of Britain's liberal political principles. This book is a comprehensive portrait of the British colony in Egypt, which also takes a fresh look at the examples of colonial cultures memorably enshrined in Edward W. Said's classic Orientalism. It presents a study that takes Edward Said's theory of colonial culture as a first reference and follows his method of analysing various British cultural products that involved some sort of cultural exchange. British residence in Egypt was facilitated by commercial treaties, known as the 'Capitulations'. The idea of Britain's 'civilising mission' had become justification for the repression of Egypt's liberty. Arguing that Said's analysis offered only the dominant discourse in imperial and colonial narratives, the book uses private papers, letters, memoirs, as well as the official texts, histories and government reports, to reveal both dominant and muted discourses. While imperial sentiment set the standards and sealed the ruling caste culture image, the investigation of colonial sentiment reveals a diverse colony in temperament and lifestyles, often intimately rooted in the Egyptian setting. British high commissioner Sir Miles Lampson's interventions in Egyptian domestic politics marked a momentous turning point in imperial history by spurring extremist nationalism. The interwar time of uncertainty witnessed a see-sawing of the imperialistic and the liberal or internationalist impulses.

James Whidden

As has been said, it is difficult to recall an authentic historical voice. Lower-class experience was mediated through elite discourses. Likewise, the colonial and colonised identities were not isolated, but interrelated by the nature of the cultural ‘dialogue’ that colonialism created. 1 Egyptian elites and British colonials collaborated before the First World War, often

in Egypt
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James Whidden

projects. An itinerary of sorts appeared coincidentally at the zenith of empire, with the publication of Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Company's catalogue in 1909: Twentieth Century Impressions of Egypt: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources . The editor-in-chief was Arnold Wright, a journalist who had travelled widely across the empire, including Australia, India, and

in Egypt
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James Whidden

It would be incorrect to identify the origin of the British colony with the military occupation of 1882. Nor is there an origin in the sense of a founding script of the colony, like the Boer Treks. But there is an origin in the sense of the conditions that enabled Britons to travel to Egypt and establish residency. From that perspective, it is difficult to determine when the

in Egypt
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James Whidden

The Egyptian expedition of 1882 was the last time that the British army marched to battle in redcoats. It was also, so it was said, the first time the British army demonstrated the kind of unblinking calculation to annihilate the enemy later recorded at Omdurman. Although not genocidal, the large-scale slaughter, including the killing of those in flight and the injured, was regarded

in Egypt
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James Whidden

Herbert Addison was lecturing on engineering at Leeds University when one of his students, ‘Abd al-Majid ‘Umar, recruited him to teach at the Egyptian state school of engineering in 1921. He arrived in the midst of a political crisis. The revolt of 1919 had undermined the Protectorate, and the government of Lloyd George was involved in fruitless negotiations with Egyptian

in Egypt
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James Whidden

France and Israel against Egypt meant that most British passport-holders were expelled from Egypt after the failed invasion. Some of the exceptions were those married to Egyptians. Samir Rafaat identified eight such British women living in Ma’adi in 1956, mostly recent arrivals who had met their spouses while studying in Britain. 3 Others were performing jobs that Egyptians could not fill. The British

in Egypt
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James Whidden

In the spring of 1882 the Egyptian crisis was coming to the boil just as there was an attempt on Queen Victoria's life in London. But these events paled in the public imagination against the plan by London's Regent's Park Zoo to sell Jumbo the elephant to P.T. Barnum of the famed Barnum & Bailey Circus. Jumbo's story embodies elements of Britain's relations with Egypt

in Egypt
A case of persistent semi-rentierism
Amr Adly

Introduction Whereas most of this volume focuses on the impact of lower oil prices on the Middle East and North Africa's (MENA) oil-rich and predominantly rentier economies, this chapter examines Egypt as a peculiar case of semi-rentierism with a resilient dependency on hydrocarbon rents in the external and state sectors. Semi-rentierism is an asymmetrical dependency of generally resource-poor economies on hydrocarbon-based rents in the mode of insertion in the global division of labour through trade and capital flows, as

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.