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British colony, imperial capital
Author: James Whidden

The military occupation of Egypt exposed the British government to charges of self-interest and the betrayal of Britain's liberal political principles. This book is a comprehensive portrait of the British colony in Egypt, which also takes a fresh look at the examples of colonial cultures memorably enshrined in Edward W. Said's classic Orientalism. It presents a study that takes Edward Said's theory of colonial culture as a first reference and follows his method of analysing various British cultural products that involved some sort of cultural exchange. British residence in Egypt was facilitated by commercial treaties, known as the 'Capitulations'. The idea of Britain's 'civilising mission' had become justification for the repression of Egypt's liberty. Arguing that Said's analysis offered only the dominant discourse in imperial and colonial narratives, the book uses private papers, letters, memoirs, as well as the official texts, histories and government reports, to reveal both dominant and muted discourses. While imperial sentiment set the standards and sealed the ruling caste culture image, the investigation of colonial sentiment reveals a diverse colony in temperament and lifestyles, often intimately rooted in the Egyptian setting. British high commissioner Sir Miles Lampson's interventions in Egyptian domestic politics marked a momentous turning point in imperial history by spurring extremist nationalism. The interwar time of uncertainty witnessed a see-sawing of the imperialistic and the liberal or internationalist impulses.

Editor: Eleanor Dobson

This book considers ancient Egypt and its relics as depicted in literature across the Victorian era, addressing themes such as reanimated mummies and ancient Egyptian mythology, as well as contemporary consumer culture across a range of literary modes, from literary realism to Gothic fiction, from burlesque satire to historical novels, and from popular culture to the elite productions of the aesthetes and decadents. In doing so, it is the first multi-authored study to scrutinise ancient Egypt in nineteenth-century literature, bringing together a variety of literary methodologies to probe ancient Egypt’s complex connotations across this era. This collection scrutinises and illuminates the ways in which ancient Egypt was harnessed to question notions of race, imperialism, religion, gender, sexuality and the fluidity of literary genre. Collectively, the chapters demonstrate the pervasiveness of contemporary interest in ancient Egypt through the consideration of narratives and authors held as canonical in the nineteenth century, bringing these into conversation with new sources brought to light by the authors of these chapters. Discussing the works of major figures in nineteenth-century culture including Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire, George Eliot, H. Rider Haggard, Bram Stoker and Oscar Wilde, this collection extends beyond British writing, to European and American literature. It weaves discussions of understudied figures – such as Charles Wells, Louisa Stuart Costello and Guy Boothby – into this analysis. Overall, it establishes the richness of a literary culture developing across the century often held to have ‘birthed’ the discipline of Egyptology, the scholarly means by which we might comprehend ancient Egyptian culture.

Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

Foreign relations and internal reforms
Roger Forshaw

4 Egypt, a new beginning: foreign relations and internal reforms I  Foreign and commercial relations Invasion from the west Shortly after the investiture of Nitiqret as God’s Wife of Amun at Thebes, and with Psamtek now effectively in control of Upper and Lower Egypt, a threat was posed by the desert tribes who were attempting to infiltrate Egypt through the western border. A series of seven stelae, discovered along the ancient Dahshur road at South Saqqara between the pyramid of Pepy II and the modern Cairo–Faiyum road, are witness to this event.1 These stelae

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Learning from experiment and experience
Rosalind Janssen

31 Making an ancient Egyptian contraceptive: learning from experiment and experience Rosalind Janssen It is a great pleasure to dedicate this chapter to Professor Rosalie David as an educator who has been at the forefront of university adult ­education. Having single-handedly set up her innovative Certificate in Egyptology at the University of Manchester, she then ran a consistently oversubscribed course for some twenty-five years, enabling successive cohorts of locally based adult learners to study Egyptology seriously for the first time. I was privileged to be

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Multidisciplinary essays for Rosalie David

Combining approaches to ancient Egyptian religious expression, medical practice and the modern scientific study of human and material remains from Egypt and Sudan, this volume celebrates the multidisciplinary career of Prof Rosalie David OBE. The UK’s first female Professor in Egyptology, Rosalie David’s pioneering work at the University of Manchester on Egyptian mummies, magic and medicine has attracted international attention.

This volume presents research by a number of leading experts in their fields: recent archaeological fieldwork, new research on Egyptian human remains and unpublished museum objects along with reassessments of ancient Egyptian texts concerned with healing and the study of technology through experimental archaeology. Papers try to answer some of Egyptology’s biggest questions - How did Tutankhamun die? How were the Pyramids built? How were mummies made? – along with less well-known puzzles.

Rather than address these areas separately, the volume adopts the so-called ‘Manchester method’ instigated by Rosalie David and attempts to integrate perspectives from both traditional Egyptology and scientific analytical techniques. Much of this research has never appeared in print before, particularly that resulting from the Manchester Egyptian Mummy Project, set up in the 1970s. The resulting overview illustrates how Egyptology has developed over the last 40 years, and how many of the same big questions still remain.

This book will be of use to researchers and students of archaeology or related disciplines with an interest in multidisciplinary approaches to understanding life and death in ancient Egypt and Sudan.

Patricia Lambert-Zazulak

25 The International Ancient Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank Patricia Lambert-Zazulak The concept of tissue banking is well established, and has many applications in the medical field. Good examples are tissues stored for transplant surgery and also blood and blood product banking, all of which have contributed in many ways to modern medicine and research. Tissues are collected, stored, studied and distributed in a variety of ways appropriate to their uses, and each type of tissue bank has its own scientific and ethical considerations, which are ­complementary to

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Ryan Metcalfe

13 Bread and beer in ancient Egyptian medicine Ryan Metcalfe The environment of ancient Egypt was ideally suited to the cultivation of cereal crops. Nile floods brought fertile sediments from upstream to reinvigorate the soil, and the water itself could be diverted and stored in a series of channels and basins to irrigate the plants (Butzer 1976: 17). The importance of these crops to the ancient Egyptians can be seen in their incorporation into many different parts of life other than just the diet. Grain in the form of bread and beer formed the basis of

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Don Brothwell

18 The biology of ancient Egyptians and Nubians Don Brothwell Since Napoleonic times, there has been a constant interest in not only the art and architecture of Egypt and Nubia, but also the mummies and skeletons discovered there. Early studies, such as Nott and Gliddon (1857), lacked scientific rigour, but by the end of the nineteenth century, there was concern to improve scientific accuracy in reporting and increase sample sizes. Examples of this improved standard of research are provided by Elliot Smith and Wood Jones (1910) and Oetteking (1908) on Egyptian

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
James Whidden

As has been said, it is difficult to recall an authentic historical voice. Lower-class experience was mediated through elite discourses. Likewise, the colonial and colonised identities were not isolated, but interrelated by the nature of the cultural ‘dialogue’ that colonialism created. 1 Egyptian elites and British colonials collaborated before the First World War, often

in Egypt