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Author: Tom Betteridge

This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.

The Muscovy Company and Giles Fletcher, the elder (1546–1611)

This book tells the story of English relations with Russia, from the 'strange and wonderfull discoverie' of the land and Elizabeth I's correspondence with Ivan the Terrible, to the corruption of the Muscovy Company and the Elizabethan regime's censorship of politically sensitive representations of Russia. Focusing on the life and works of Giles Fletcher, the elder, ambassador to Russia in 1588, it explores two popular themes in Elizabethan history: exploration, travel and trade and late Elizabethan political culture. The book draws together and analyses the narratives of travel, the practicalities of trade and the discourses of commonwealth and corruption that defined English encounters in late sixteenth century. In the early stages of English mercantile contact with Russia, diplomatic negotiations took shape in the wake of developing trade relations and were made up of a series of ad hoc embassies by individuals. The embassy of Giles Fletcher in 1588, however, represented a change in diplomatic tack. Fletcher's writing of Russia reveals some shared Elizabethan images of the land on Christendom's periphery and fundamentally how Russia was used as a site to reflect on themes of cultural development, commonwealth, trade and colonisation. The extensive use in Fletcher's text of the language of anti-popery points to resonances with the anxieties that riddled the political and religious consciences of late Elizabethan England. His work engaged in cajoling the commonwealth to think with the image of Russia.

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Tom Betteridge

be read as exemplary representations of the Elizabethan regime as a via media between Henrician tyranny and Edwardian anarchy.2 The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. At home the campaign by godly Protestants to purge of the English Church of its residual papist elements continued but made only moderate headway in the face of Elizabeth’s opposition. In 1577 Archbishop Grindal was suspended by Elizabeth for daring to suggest that as a clergyman he answered

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
The machinery of the Elizabethan war effort in the counties
Neil Younger

they beare, all mutations (I meane touching religion) will beare with theim. They must be protestantes therfore, and the same so zelous, that may thynk theim selves to be in daunger of squysing, by the ruine of the present government, if it should fall upon theim.2 ‘The ruine of the present government’ was an appalling prospect indeed: the collapse of the Elizabethan regime, potentially the extinction of English Protestantism – this was the fate Lambarde was referring to. As historians are increasingly becoming aware, the vulnerability of the political

in War and politics in the Elizabethan counties
Russia’s resonances in late Elizabethan England
Felicity Jane Stout

Russians worse than Tartars and vulnerable to the blandishments of Rome. These arguments had some valence for contemporary discussions of English politics in the 1580s and 1590s, inflected with the anxieties arising from the French religious wars and Spanish ‘tyranny’ on the continent. The resonances of these arguments help to explain the public reception of Fletcher’s work on Russia and reflect Fletcher’s own political and religious alignments in the late Elizabethan regime. This chapter considers Fletcher’s key arguments in relation to discussions of late Elizabethan

in Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth
Censorship, poetry and Fletcher’s later career
Felicity Jane Stout

resistance to tyrannical government. In addition, the politics of Anglo-Russian relations following in the wake of Fletcher’s embassy shed further light on why his text may have had a negative reception when published in 1591. This chapter traces the controversial printing history of The Russe Common Wealth and the reaction of the Muscovy Company and the Elizabethan regime to Fletcher’s text. It also explores Fletcher’s love poetry of the 1590s, detailing a capricious, cruel and tyrannical lover in the image of his beloved Licia and a chilling depiction of historical

in Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth
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Thinking with Russia, writing English commonwealth
Felicity Jane Stout

variety of Elizabethan representations of Russia. There was not one essentialised Elizabethan ‘view’ of Russia, but multiple ways of seeing, thinking with and using Russia to reflect on the world in general, the English commonwealth in particular, and the changing nature of English identity and government during this period. The controversial place that Fletcher and his texts held in the Elizabethan regime, alongside and in contrast to his more practical concerns in government service, demonstrate that in this case at least, ‘travel writing’ had significance and

in Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth
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Felicity Jane Stout

domestic stresses and strains, as well as the continental-wide religious strife, so present in Elizabethan politics.1 Although less often examined in the study of Elizabethan political culture, trade and travel accounts, diplomatic reports and treatises on the governments of foreign lands are equally important to our understanding of the workings of the Elizabethan regime, and no less revelatory of Elizabethan readers’ conceptions of government and perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of monarch and civil subject in the late sixteenth-century commonwealth. The

in Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth
Tom Betteridge

, reaction? Would Elizabeth have enjoyed being depicted as the sick ruler of Europe? Of being stretched out on the operating table while her enemies sharpened their instrument? Cecil’s comments on religion are also significant. Clearly Epicurus had no followers in Elizabethan England. The intended audience of A Short Memoryall would, however, have understood and appreciated this classical allusion. The reference to Epicurus is a marker of the shared political language that united leading members of the early Elizabethan regime. It also, however, reflects the ideological

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
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Neil Younger

, seen many instances in which local elites, even those who have been pointed to as standard-bearers of the Elizabethan regime, failed to meet the demands placed on them; these were clearly ardent supporters of the regime, but they were not always ready to make the sacrifices necessary to translate their support into the practical measures required by the regime. Rather than seeking to paint an unduly rosy picture of the success of the regime, it is perhaps more accurate to say that such successes as the regime achieved were surely down to the work of these local

in War and politics in the Elizabethan counties