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The iconography of Elizabeth I

The visual images of Queen Elizabeth I displayed in contemporary portraits and perpetuated and developed in more recent media, such as film and television, make her one of the most familiar and popular of all British monarchs. This book is a collection of essays that examine the diversity of the queen's extensive iconographical repertoire, focusing on both visual and textual representations of Elizabeth, in portraiture, literature, contemporary sermons, speeches and alchemical treatises. It falls into three sections. The first part looks at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by and about Elizabeth, such as the Prophetesse Deborah, the suggestive parallel with Joan of Arc, and finally Lady Alchymia, the female deity in alchemical treatises. When Queen Elizabeth I, the first female Protestant monarch, was enthroned in 1558, male poets, artists, theologians, and statesmen struggled to represent this new phenomenon. The second part turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The last part focuses on the ways in which the classical world was plundered for modes of imaging and figuring the queen. Finally, the book summarises the enormously wide range of Elizabeth's iconographical repertoire of its appeal, and provides a fitting end to a book which ranges so widely across the allegorical personae of the queen.

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Annaliese Connolly
Lisa Hopkins

. Their work also examines the notion, common in alchemical literature, that women possess a unique, privileged and unsettling knowledge of the secrets of Nature. Part II turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The naming of the land in this way

in Goddesses and Queens
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Susan Royal

This chapter lays out the case for re-evaluating the role of the lollards in the English Reformation. In particular, it argues that a fresh look at John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments (1563) will show that a wealth of non-mainstream material is present in the text, despite general historiographical agreement that Foxe elided radical material in order to make the lollards appear more like proto-Elizabethan-era Protestants. The chapter also elucidates the monograph’s scope, methodology, and aims. It offers a historiographical foundation for the book. It also shows how this study might produce fruitful observations within the studies of puritanism and early modern tolerance.

in Lollards in the English Reformation
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Peter Kalu

in the street below. There is no better way for a costume drama film to establish its Elizabethan-era credentials than to show slops being thrown from bedroom casement windows. The Victorian sewer is part of England’s claim to glory, along with the two World Wars and the one World Cup. Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (1819–91) has his own statue in London by the River Thames for building London’s main sewers in the 1860s. Manchester has yet to honour its sewer builders, yet they too did a fine job of keeping shit moving – as great a job as the canal builders who are

in Manchester
Lez Cooke

-school education spoke ‘correctly’, whereas regional accents were a sign of a lack of education. Exploring the historical disparity in educational opportunities between North and South, Donald Read observes how the elevation of a courtly ‘Southern English’ over Northern speech patterns and dialect dates back to the Elizabethan era: As early as 1589 the author of The Arte of English Poesie advised poets never to use ‘any speech used beyond the river of Trent’, which was ‘not so Courtly nor so current as our Southern English is, no more is the far Western man’s speech’; he

in A sense of place
Eric Klingelhofer

(eds), Renaissance Bodies , pp. 198–217; and ‘Civic buildings and courtier houses: new techniques and materials for architectural ornament’, in D. Gaimster and P. Stamper (eds), The Age of Transition: The Archaeology of English Culture 1400–1600 (Oxford, 1997), pp. 105–13. 11 M. Girouard, Robert Smythson and the Architecture of the Elizabethan Era (South Brunswick, NJ, 1967); M. Airs, The Making of the English Country House 1500–1640 (London, 1975); and N. Cooper, ‘The gentry house in the Age of Transition’, in Gaimster and Stamper

in Castles and Colonists
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The House by the Church yard
W. J. McCormack

Puddock’s preference is in fact for Rowe’s play of 1702, where the hero is presented as a calm philosopher-prince and presented also as modelled on William III! In Puddock and Dunoran, the Chattesworth ladies have chosen husbands who mediate between the undeniable violence of the Elizabethan era when Ireland was finally conquered and the uneasy, smoke-clouded politics of an

in Dissolute characters
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The British monarchy in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, 1991–2016
Mark McKenna

As the Queen approaches her ninetieth birthday, republicans in both major political parties have reached a consensus in recent years that there will be no move towards a republic until the post-Elizabethan era. Agreeing to wait until the monarch dies, they hope that the last residue of attachment to the monarchy will die with her, if it has not died already. During the Queen’s past four visits to

in Crowns and colonies
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Paul Jackson

but could only replace fascist politicians with other fascists. The BUF’s version of the corporate state was also based on an alternate economic system modelled in part on Mussolini’s Italy, but also clearly drawing on earlier British radical discourses, such as those of the Guild Socialists. The supposed national unity of the Elizabethan era would be rekindled and combined with a novel type of modern

in Pride in prejudice
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s court
Richard James Wood

pass through any straits or latitudes of good or ill fortune, might (as in a glass) see how to set a good countenance upon all the discountenances of adversity, and a stay upon the exorbitant smilings of chance. 21 James’s conception of Sidney’s purpose in writing the Arcadia also relies on the suitability of Greville’s ‘A Dedication to Sir Philip Sidney’ for reading the Arcadia . However, given that it was completed in the Jacobean (between 1610 and 1612) rather than the Elizabethan era, in a different political and philosophical climate, its suitability

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue