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Anandi Ramamurthy

in shaping images of Empire and black people. In the inter-war period, however, the government’s propaganda experiment, in the shape of the Empire Marketing Board (EMB), radically altered this state of affairs. The British government, through the EMB, became the defining force in representing the image of black people and Empire, to which private enterprise responded. This chapter will trace the reasons for

in Imperial persuaders
Stephen Tallents and the birth of a progessive media profession
Author: Scott Anthony

Public relations was established in Britain by a group of liberal intellectuals in the aftermath of the slump. This book argues that the development was a product of the Great Depression. It challenges the template of British public relations history popularised by Professor Sam Black. While Civil Servants began to develop ideas about the necessity of public relations, state use of 'propaganda' during the Great War had been a controversial intervention that cast a grim shadow across the postwar period. Sir Stephen Tallents stands at the centre of this story, touching every significant public relations innovation in early twentieth-century Britain. The book tracks the development of public relations through the peaks and troughs of Tallents's career, which is to build a holistic understanding of the discipline's political, professional, organisational and personal genesis. Transferred to the Empire Marketing Board (EMB), Tallents saw an imaginative correlation between Frank Pick's co-ordination of the existing underground railway companies with Britain's relationship to its Empire. The EMB Film Unit established in 1928 was crucial to the development of this radical function of public relations. Introducing public relations at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Ministry of Information pitted Tallents's subtle sensibility against more powerful ideological, institutional and political competition. Under Tallents, the General Post Office (GPO) produced a range of educational materials, supplying schools with educational posters, toy telephone sets, model post offices and instructional pamphlets on the history of communication. He and others formed the Institute of Public Relations in 1948.

Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.

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The Empire Marketing Board, 1926–1933
Scott Anthony

2 Beginnings: The Empire Marketing Board, 1926–1933 ‘No one can successfully manage over a long period of time even the smallest estate without a definite plan’, wrote Tallents at the inception of the Empire Marketing Board, ‘yet at present we are making no real attempt even to frame, still less execute, any plan for the organised development of the Empire’s economic resources’.1 The Board had been created by Stanley Baldwin to promote Empire goods, but the delicacies of imperial politics and a lingering suspicion of state propaganda prevented the Board from

in Public relations and the making of modern Britain
The Empire Marketing Board and imperial propaganda, 1926–33
Stephen Constantine

in government and in the economy, secondly, that the means of transmitting the ideology to subordinate classes existed and were utilised for this purpose, and thirdly, that imperial ideals did penetrate popular culture particularly among the working class and that this did affect mass perceptions and behaviour. The Empire Marketing Board had only a brief existence, formed in

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
John M. Mackenzie

finding a new role in the 1920s and 1930s, when its commercial, scientific, and technical work came to be subordinate to its role as a source of public propaganda on the Empire. It was this ‘educational’ function which was to prove more attractive, to the Dominion governments at least. The Institute now became caught up in various propagandist efforts, the Empire Marketing Board, the Colonial Empire

in Propaganda and Empire
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John M. MacKenzie

presented in them. My own contribution is a preliminary exploration of the domestic propaganda of the BBC, a topic largely unexplored. It is significant that, as Stephen Constantine indicates in the case of the Empire Marketing Board, the legitimacy of imperial propaganda was frequently taken as read. There might be controversies about the nature of that propaganda, but few were prepared to deny the centrality of the

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
Scott Anthony

further the status of Britain and British film.7 No wonder that in The Projection of England Tallents observes that that government policy towards cinema remained focused on ‘preventing the bad’, to paraphrase Wallas again, rather than ‘promoting the good’. ‘It is probable that more has been said and written during the last year about the connexion between British films and the British Empire than ever before’, noted The Times: ‘countless people write and talk about it, but no one does anything’. 8 The creation of the Empire Marketing Board Film Unit The Projection of

in Public relations and the making of modern Britain
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Images of Africa and Asia in British advertising

We live in an age in which advertising is part of the fabric of our lives. Advertising in its modern form largely has its origins in the later nineteenth century. This book is the first to provide a historical survey of images of black people in advertising during the colonial period. It highlights the way in which racist representations continually developed and shifted throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, depending on the particular political and economic interests of the producers of these images. The book analyses the various conflicting, and changing ideologies of colonialism and racism in British advertising, revealing reveal the purposes to which these images of dehumanisation and exploitation were employed. The first part deals with images of Africa, the second deals with images of black people in the West, and the third considers questions relating to issues about images and social representations in general. The Eurocentric image of the 'savage' and 'heathen', the period of slavery, European exploration and missionary activity, as well as the colonisation of Africa in the nineteenth century are explored. Representations of the servant, the entertainer, and the exotic man or woman with a rampant sexuality are also presented. The key strategy with which images of black people from the colonial period have been considered is that of stereotyping. The material interests of soap manufacturers, cocoa manufacturers, tea advertising, and tobacco advertising are discussed. The book explains the four particular types of imagery dominate corporate advertising during the 1950s and early 1960s.

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Gordon Pirie

BBC Empire service which commenced in 1932, the Imperial Institute, the Empire Marketing Board (1926–33), the Colonial Empire Marketing Board (1937–39) and the Empire Film Unit, Imperial Airways was a source of Empire information and images which hoped to mould populist imperialism. Airline advertisements, and magazine articles in the aeronautical press and in general interest serials, also helped

in Cultures and caricatures of British imperial aviation