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British settlement in the dominions between the wars

Professor Drummond's two pioneering studies, British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919-1939, 1972, and Imperial Economic Policy 1917-1939, 1974, helped to revive interest in Empire migration and other aspects of inter-war imperial economic history. This book concentrates upon the attempts to promote state-assisted migration in the post-First World War period particularly associated with the Empire Settlement Act of 1922. It examines the background to these new emigration experiments, the development of plans for both individual and family migration, as well as the specific schemes for the settlement of ex-servicemen and of women. Varying degrees of encouragement, acquiescence and resistance with which they were received in the dominions, are discussed. After the First World War there was a striking reorientation of state policy on emigration from the United Kingdom. A state-assisted emigration scheme for ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, operating from 1919 to 1922, was followed by an Empire Settlement Act, passed in 1922. This made significant British state funding available for assisted emigration and overseas land settlement in British Empire countries. Foremost amongst the achievements of the high-minded imperial projects was the free-passage scheme for ex-servicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Oversea Settlement Committee. Cheap passages were considered as one of the prime factors in stimulating the flow of migration, particularly in the case of single women. The research represented here makes a significant contribution to the social histories of these states as well as of the United Kingdom.

Opportunity or exile?
Author: Marjory Harper

Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.

Labour colonies and the Empire
John Field

, then, were there not abundant reasons to train those who were unwanted in Britain, and resettle them on the lush pastures of the Empire or perhaps the United States? Until the 1920s, most labour colony training for emigration was conducted by voluntary bodies. Government involvement was limited to local support for pauper emigration under the poor laws; most of the many British and especially Irish emigrants travelled with no state support; at most, they were financed by their families, or at a pinch by a local philanthropist. The Empire Settlement Act 1922, which

in Working men’s bodies
Single female migration and the Empire Settlement Act, 1922–1930
Janice Gothard

the Dominions Royal Commission in 1917 underlining the importance of continued female migration, the OSC adopted an aggressive stand on the question. Under the Empire Settlement Act of 1922, Canada, Australia and New Zealand all offered passage assistance to single British domestic servants, an occupational group much in demand in both the United Kingdom and the dominions. As part of persistent efforts to stimulate

in Emigrants and empire
The politics of Empire settlement, 1900–1922
Keith Williams

After the First World War there was a striking reorientation of state policy on emigration from the United Kingdom. A state-assisted emigration scheme for ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, operating from 1919 to 1922, was followed by an Empire Settlement Act, passed in 1922, which made significant British state funding available for assisted emigration and overseas land settlement

in Emigrants and empire
Marjory Harper

The controversy that had always been a concomitant of emigration clearly did not cease with the passage of the Empire Settlement Act of 1922, which sharpened the debate from party political, ideological and practical perspectives. In a Scottish context, the youthful exodus from urban-industrial areas – which accounted for much of the country’s inter-war emigration – also became one of the sharpest rocks on which formal schemes of empire settlement foundered, while simultaneously exposing the paradoxical attitudes

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
Edna Bradlow

imperial self-interest and the still attractive appeal of imperial sentiment. The details of the subsequent Empire Settlement Act of 1922 have been dealt with elsewhere in this volume. What is germane here is the reaction of the South African government. At the Imperial Conference of June 1921, South Africa publicly ‘dissociated herself rather sharply’ from the draft proposals which were later embodied in

in Emigrants and empire
Angela McCarthy

Settlement Act, enabled Scottish and Irish migrants from the north to avail 34 themselves of subsidised fares. Ex-service personnel, meanwhile, could travel to Australasia free of charge. Indeed, between 1923 and 1929 one third of 35 British emigrants to Canada and two-thirds to Australia received assistance. One of the most popular schemes operated between 1947 and 1975, allowing British migrants to travel to Australasia for £10. Regulations stipulated that migrants had to be single, under 35 years of age, and accept employ36 ment in certain occupations for two years

in Personal narratives of Irish and Scottish migration, 1921–65
Abstract only
Empire migration and imperial harmony
Stephen Constantine

families or next of kin in the dominions. The scheme was kept open until March 1923, and it involved the Imperial government in a sizeable cash commitment to provide free passages for approved emigrants. This programme proved to be only the preliminary to a more substantial statement of the Imperial government’s new convictions, the Empire Settlement Act of 1922. Initially framed to last fifteen years, it

in Emigrants and empire
The canadianizing 1920s
Katie Pickles

people overseas in British territories, especially in the ‘white’ Dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. 3 State involvement centred around the 1922 Empire Settlement Act, which authorized assistance for passages and land settlement for fifteen years, with £3 million allocated each year. 4 Gender was of vital concern in post-First World War British

in Female imperialism and national identity