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History, radicalism, and John Foxe
Author: Susan Royal

This book addresses a perennial question of the English Reformation: to what extent, if any, the late medieval dissenters known as lollards influenced the Protestant Reformation in England. To answer this question, this book looks at the appropriation of the lollards by evangelicals such as William Tyndale, John Bale, and especially John Foxe, and through them by their seventeenth-century successors. Because Foxe included the lollards in his influential tome, Acts and Monuments (1563), he was the most important conduit for their individual stories, including that of John Wyclif (d. 1384), and lollard beliefs and ecclesiology. Foxe’s reorientation of the lollards from heretics and traitors to martyrs and model subjects portrayed them as Protestants’ spiritual forebears. Scholars have argued that to accomplish this, Foxe heavily edited radical lollard views on episcopacy, baptism, preaching, conventicles, tithes, and oaths, either omitting them from his book or moulding them into forms compatible with a magisterial Reformation. This book shows that Foxe in fact made no systematic attempt to downplay radical lollard beliefs, and that much non-mainstream material exists in the text. These views, legitimised by Foxe’s inclusion of them in his book, allowed for later dissenters to appropriate the lollards as historical validation of their theological and ecclesiological positions. The book traces the ensuing struggle for the lollard, and indeed the Foxean, legacy between conformists and nonconformists, arguing that the same lollards that Foxe used to bolster the English church in the sixteenth century would play a role in its fragmentation in the seventeenth.

Author: Tom Betteridge

This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.

Each age has used the debate about the English Reformation in its own way and for its own ends. This book is about the changing nature of the debate on the English Reformation, and is a study of Reformation historiography. It focuses the historiography of the Reformation as seen through the eyes of men who were contemporaries of the English Reformation, and examines the work of certain later writers from Thomas Fuller to John Strype. The book discusses the history of the sixteenth-century Reformation as written by modernist professional historians of the later nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. All through the Tudor times the tide of Reformation ebbed and flowed as the monarch willed. The book sets out modern debates concerning the role of Henry VIII, or his ministers, the Reformation and the people of England, and the relative strength of Protestantism or Catholicism. Catholics and Protestants alike openly used the historical past to support their contemporary political arguments. Additionally, the nature of religious identities, and the changes which occurred in the Church of England as a result of the Reformation are also explained. The history of the Reformation in the 1990s and 2000s has to be viewed within the context of research assessment and peer review. The book shows how persistent the threat of postmodernist theory is to the discipline of history, even as leading academic authorities on the Reformation have rejected it out of hand.

Rosemary O’Day

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:36 Page 8 1 Historiography contemporary to the English Reformation, 1525–70 Introduction On the face of it, it might seem that the Reformation, of its nature, rejected history. And so in a sense it did, or at least the force of recent precedent. After all, the new religion involved a break with that recent past – denial of tradition as an authority for religious dogma, practice and doctrine; a denial of papal authority. But it is no less true that the English Reformation used history – an interpretation of the past – to

in The Debate on the English Reformation
D.G. Paz

This article addresses three topics. It describes Chartisms creation of a ‘peoples history’ as an alternative to middle-class history, whether Whig or Tory. It locates the sources, most of which have not been noticed before, for the Chartist narrative of the English Reformation. William Cobbetts reinterpretation of the English Reformation is well known as a source for the working-class narrative; William Howitts much less familiar but more important source, antedating Cobbetts History of the Protestant Reformation in England, is used for the first time. The article reconstructs that narrative using printed and manuscript lectures and published interpretations dating from the first discussions of the Peoples Charter in 1836 to the last Chartist Convention in 1858. The manuscript lectures of Thomas Cooper are an essential but little-used source. The article contributes to historical understanding of the intellectual life of the English working class.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Abstract only
Susan Royal

This study has explored the role of the lollards, as shaped by Foxe’s Acts and Monuments , in the course of the long English Reformation. It argues that these medieval witnesses were crucial in helping evangelicals establish the Church of England in the sixteenth century, but that they also played a theological role in its breakdown in the seventeenth. Few scholars have considered the theological legacy of the lollards in the seventeenth century, aside from making correlations between the radical beliefs that the lollards held and those

in Lollards in the English Reformation
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Susan Royal

the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Radicalism has not been traditionally associated with the English Reformation, as scholars have portrayed a reformed consensus centred on a via media between the theological extremes of Rome and Geneva. 17 But this claim has been subject to demolition in the past generation: Diarmaid MacCulloch has ‘explod[ed] the myth’ on which this idea was built by demonstrating that England’s Reformation was characterised more by rupture than continuity; 18 Ethan Shagan has dismantled its central pillar, the

in Lollards in the English Reformation
Discovery
Rosemary O’Day

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:36 Page 151 6 The Reformation and the people: discovery Introduction In the twentieth century, and particularly from 1960 to c. 1985, the English Reformation became prey to the new history.1 Historians, exhibiting their acquaintance with the methodologies of psychohistory, sociology, anthropology, demography, linguistics and economics determined to write histoire totale. For this reason, it is often difficult to determine what were works of, strictly speaking, Reformation history at all and what were works of purely secular

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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Rosemary O’Day

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:36 Page 1 INTRODUCTION The book is organized to maximize its usefulness to students – particularly those in university and college studying historiography and/or the Reformation itself. It is a book about the changing nature of the debate on the English Reformation. It is not a book about the philosophy of history and how that has changed over the centuries although reference will often be made to this subject. I am full of admiration for Michael Bentley’s excellent Modernizing England’s Past, but, in this modernist history of

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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Reformation: reformulation, reiteration and reflection
Rosemary O’Day

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:37 Page 322 CONCLUSION Reformation: reformulation, reiteration and reflection Each age has used the debate about the English Reformation in its own way and for its own ends. The debate itself has been shaped anew many times, although remnants and threads of its earlier fabric have often remained. This debate has also been part of the evolution of the discipline of history itself and, indeed, of the philosophy of history. Modern historians are interested in all these differing manifestations of the debate. The historian

in The Debate on the English Reformation