The essays in this book demonstrate the importance of translation and European writing in the development of the Gothic novel. Cross-cultural exchanges occurred with the translation of novels by English writers into French. The book first situates works by British writers and American writers within a European context and legacy. Next, it offers readings of less-known works by Gothic authors. The book introduces the reader to a range of neglected, albeit influential, European Gothic texts which originated in Russian, Spanish, French and German. It argues that the level of ideological manipulation, which occurred as texts were translated, mistranslated, appropriated, misappropriated, altered and adapted from one language to another, was so considerable and so systematic that generic mutations were occasioned. The book suggests that Matthew Lewis's The Monk offers a few models of femininity, all deriving from and intended to disrupt, previous literary representations. It focuses on the automatic and the systematic in Charles Maturin's work in relation to Denis Diderot's contemporary philosophical conceptualizations of consciousness and identity. Gothic treacheries are dealt with through Samuel Coleridge's analysis of misappropriation of Friedrich Schiller's Die Rauber. The book also discusses the representations of ritual violence, as sanctioned by the Catholic Church, in English and Spanish pictorial and literary texts between 1796 and 1834. It talks about the Arabesque narrative technique of embedding tales within tales to create a maze in which even the storyteller becomes lost, reflecting the Eastern notion that the created is more important than the creator.
different formally these 2 MSS [ Le dépeupleur and Bing ] belong together. Bing may be regarded as the result or miniaturization of Le dépeupleur abandoned because of its intractable complexities.’
6 For a discussion of Beckett and EnglishRomanticism see Elizabeth Barry, ‘“Take into the air my quiet breath”: Samuel Beckett and EnglishRomanticism’, Journal of Beckett Studies , 10:1–2 (Fall 2000/Spring 2001), 207–221.
7 Ruby Cohn, Back to Beckett (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973), p. 257. Neumeister
writing during this revolutionary time was littered with romantic
images, much of the romantic writing was full of revolutionary elements. In
particular Englishromanticism was greatly influenced by many of the political ideals central to the beginning of the French Revolution such as equality,
democracy and opposition to absolutism, as these were incorporated into the
literature of numerous writers in Britain and thereby into domestic political debate and politics. At the time, romanticism was considered a political
language (Klancher 1989: 491) and still is. As
-philosophical turn in EnglishRomanticism’, Milnes argues, was ‘itself sustained by a deep epistemological anxiety’ – the anxiety that the condition of scepticism is in fact irredeemable, irresolvable (p. 7). Only with Romanticism, Milnes claims, ‘does one find the idea that aesthetic creativeness might be paradigmatic for human knowledge’ in the sense that, as Richard Rorty puts it, ‘truth is made rather than found’ (p. 8: quoting Rorty, Contingency, Irony, Solidarity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 7). According to Milnes, EnglishRomanticism ‘comes to define
Library of Congress,
Washington DC, a number of which are cited in this book, are testimony
to their professional approach. Their knowledge of plants, including
those that were pollutant-resistant, also gave landscape architects a
particular expertise in those best suited to industrial conditions. Their
business was to unify the oppositions of industry and the landscape, the
machine and the garden.
In EnglishRomanticism, for example in the writings of Wordsworth,
Carlyle and Ruskin, the machine and nature had been in opposition
since the first large factories began to
45 For further reaction, much of it unfavourable, see David M. Craig, ‘Subservient talents?
Robert Southey as a public moralist’, in Lynda Pratt (ed.), Robert Southey and the Contexts of
EnglishRomanticism (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), pp. 112–14.
46 William Cobbett, A History of the Protestant Reformation in England and Ireland (1824–27;
Dublin: James Duffy, 1867), letter 3, paragraph 84.
47 O’Day, ‘John Lingard’, p. 103.
48 For a similar juxtaposition, see the Selwyn Divinity School in Cambridge (1879), which has
statues of Cranmer and Fisher on either
a second-hand, ‘always-already symbolized’ construction of
Scottishness that is hardly ‘authentic’. In fact, what
Freeston purveys is a historically imperial, and highly Romanticized,
view of Scotland. As Jeffrey Richards states: Scotland was invented by
EnglishRomanticism and ‘characterized by wild landscape, music
and song, and by the supernatural’. ‘Romanticism’, he
goes on, ‘had certain basic
insights.8 Thomas Percy, antiquarian and arriviste, and his spectacularly successful Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, published first in
1765, signals the start of modern abuses of romance. The ‘seminal,
epoch-making’ work of EnglishRomanticism, Percy’s Reliques –
along with his infamous Folio manuscript and the attention they both
excited – has made an indelible mark on the way popular romance
continues to be read.9
Four years after the publication of the Reliques, a three-volume
work comprising mainly Middle English ballads and a set of four
The body of the hero in the early nineteenth century
Commencement of the French Revolution to the Present
Time, 3 vols (London: T. Kinnersley, 1816), vol. III, p. 239; Edward Baines,
History of the Wars of the French Revolution, 2 vols (London: Longman,
Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1818), vol. II, p. 468; John Parker, A Concise
Account of the Glorious Battle of Waterloo and Surrender of Paris (Berwick:
W. Lochhead, 1822), p. 114.
23 The Battle of Waterloo, 7th ed. (London: John Booth; T. Egerton; 1815), p.
24 On Southey’s Christian patriotism see Simon Bainbridge, Napoleon and
EnglishRomanticism (Cambridge: Cambridge
’s Culture and Society, to indicate the relationships between the debate in Cahiers du Cinéma and the theoretical
underpinning of EnglishRomanticism.
An Original may be said to be of a vegetable nature; it rises spontaneously from the vital root of genius; it grows, it is not made; imitations
are often a sort of manufacture, wrought up by those mechanics, art
and labour, out of pre-existent materials not their own.48
There are equally clear parallels with Richardson’s categories.
Firstly in terms of the association of organic unity with the artist:
the ‘“creator” proper