This book addresses a perennial question of the English Reformation: to what
extent, if any, the late medieval dissenters known as lollards influenced the
Protestant Reformation in England. To answer this question, this book looks at
the appropriation of the lollards by evangelicals such as William Tyndale, John
Bale, and especially John Foxe, and through them by their seventeenth-century
successors. Because Foxe included the lollards in his influential tome, Acts and
Monuments (1563), he was the most important conduit for their individual
stories, including that of John Wyclif (d. 1384), and lollard beliefs and
ecclesiology. Foxe’s reorientation of the lollards from heretics and traitors to
martyrs and model subjects portrayed them as Protestants’ spiritual forebears.
Scholars have argued that to accomplish this, Foxe heavily edited radical
lollard views on episcopacy, baptism, preaching, conventicles, tithes, and
oaths, either omitting them from his book or moulding them into forms compatible
with a magisterial Reformation. This book shows that Foxe in fact made no
systematic attempt to downplay radical lollard beliefs, and that much
non-mainstream material exists in the text. These views, legitimised by Foxe’s
inclusion of them in his book, allowed for later dissenters to appropriate the
lollards as historical validation of their theological and ecclesiological
positions. The book traces the ensuing struggle for the lollard, and indeed the
Foxean, legacy between conformists and nonconformists, arguing that the same
lollards that Foxe used to bolster the English church in the sixteenth century
would play a role in its fragmentation in the seventeenth.
This article addresses three topics. It describes Chartisms creation of a
‘peoples history’ as an alternative to middle-class history, whether Whig or
Tory. It locates the sources, most of which have not been noticed before, for
the Chartist narrative of the English Reformation. William Cobbetts
reinterpretation of the English Reformation is well known as a source for the
working-class narrative; William Howitts much less familiar but more important
source, antedating Cobbetts History of the Protestant Reformation in
England, is used for the first time. The article reconstructs that
narrative using printed and manuscript lectures and published interpretations
dating from the first discussions of the Peoples Charter in 1836 to the last
Chartist Convention in 1858. The manuscript lectures of Thomas Cooper are an
essential but little-used source. The article contributes to historical
understanding of the intellectual life of the English working class.
This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.
Each age has used the debate about the English Reformation in its own way and for its own ends. This book is about the changing nature of the debate on the English Reformation, and is a study of Reformation historiography. It focuses the historiography of the Reformation as seen through the eyes of men who were contemporaries of the English Reformation, and examines the work of certain later writers from Thomas Fuller to John Strype. The book discusses the history of the sixteenth-century Reformation as written by modernist professional historians of the later nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. All through the Tudor times the tide of Reformation ebbed and flowed as the monarch willed. The book sets out modern debates concerning the role of Henry VIII, or his ministers, the Reformation and the people of England, and the relative strength of Protestantism or Catholicism. Catholics and Protestants alike openly used the historical past to support their contemporary political arguments. Additionally, the nature of religious identities, and the changes which occurred in the Church of England as a result of the Reformation are also explained. The history of the Reformation in the 1990s and 2000s has to be viewed within the context of research assessment and peer review. The book shows how persistent the threat of postmodernist theory is to the discipline of history, even as leading academic authorities on the Reformation have rejected it out of hand.
4035 The debate.qxd:-
Historiography contemporary to the
On the face of it, it might seem that the Reformation, of its nature,
rejected history. And so in a sense it did, or at least the force of
recent precedent. After all, the new religion involved a break with
that recent past – denial of tradition as an authority for religious
dogma, practice and doctrine; a denial of papal authority. But it is
no less true that the EnglishReformation used history – an interpretation of the past – to
This article charts and discusses the reasons for various significant shifts and
developments during the nineteenth century of the reception of the Reformation
amongst different denominations and groups within British Protestantism.
Attitudes towards Foxes ‘Book of Martyrs’ are explored as but one among several
litmus tests of the breakdown of an earlier fragile consensus based on
anti-Catholicism as a unifying principle, with the Oxford Movement and the
intra-Protestant reaction to it identified as a crucial factor. The selfidentity
of the various British Protestant,denominations, notably the various
Nonconformist bodies as well as the established Church and evangelicalism per se
was at stake in the process of ‘reception’. Moreover, the emergence of more
secular Protestant understandings of the significance of the Reformation as an
essential stage in the emergence of modernity and liberty, often at odds with
nineteenth-century evangelical theological interpretations of its meaning and
legacy, are also highlighted. The result is an attempt to transcend the
traditional focus on Protestant-Catholic disputes over the Reformation in
narrowly bipolar terms.
The article explores some aspects of the intellectual climate of the first half
of the nineteenth century and the new ideas about race and national identity.
These in turn help to explain contemporary changes in historical perspective,
particularly in respect to the English Reformation. Disraeli‘s novels reflect
the ideas of the time on the above topics and echo contemporary historians in
their views on the Reformation, its causes, and the religious and social changes
that it brought about.
Following an extended period of neglect, the early 1840s saw a dramatic revival
of interest in English church music and its history, which coincided with the
period of heightened religious sensitivity between the publication of Newman‘s
Tract 90 in early 1841 and his conversion to Roman Catholicism in October 1845.
This article examines the activities and writings of three men who made
important contributions to the reformation of the music of the English church
that took place at this time: Rev. Frederick Oakeley; Rev. John Jebb and the
painter William Dyce. It pays particular attention to the relationship between
their beliefs about and attitudes towards the English Reformation and their
musical activities, and argues that such important works as Jebb‘s monumental
Choral Service of the United Church of England and Ireland
(1843) are best understood in the context of the religious and ecclesiological
debates that were raging at that time.
The most famous play in English literature centres on the poisoning of Hamlet’s father. It is only one of many examples of poisoning in plays of the period; there are male poisoners and female poisoners, innocent victims and guilty ones, foreign ones and home-bred ones. This is not surprising given that poisoning was easy to stage and to act, but it also allows plays to explore a number of important contemporary issues. The death of Hamlet’s father occurs in a garden, specifically in an orchard. This is one of a number of sinister uses of fruit and flowers in the plays of Shakespeare and of other early modern playwrights, partly as a consequence of the loss of horticultural knowledge resulting from the dissolution of the monasteries and partly as a result of the many new plants being brought into English gardens through travel, trade, and attempts at colonisation. There were also fears about venom, about venereal infection, and about the ways in which soporifics troubled the distinction between sleep and death. The death of Hamlet’s father is also one of several examples of the ear being particularly vulnerable to poison, an idea explored here through plays featuring informers; finally, as Hamlet painfully discovers, poisoning is remarkably difficult to prove. This book explores poisoning in early modern plays, the legal and epistemological issues it raises, and the cultural work it performs, which includes questions related to race, religion, nationality, gender, and the relationship of humans to the environment.
Sir Christopher Hatton is one of the least well-understood of major Elizabethan politicians. He rose from a humble gentry background to become a leading courtly favourite of Elizabeth I, a councillor, Lord Chancellor of England and towards the end of his life one of the most powerful men in the country. Despite serving as a leading member of Elizabeth’s Protestant regime, however, he was deeply linked with English Catholics. He was a patron of numerous Catholics within his own family, his household and servants, his artistic and academic patronage and his links with powerful local gentry. In spite of the risk to his own position, he both protected many Catholics and encouraged them where possible towards outward conformity to the church. Simultaneously, he staunchly supported those within the Church of England who sought to repress puritanism. This book, the first major study of Hatton in over seventy-five years, provides a full account of his life and career. It looks at his rise to prominence at court and his role as a royal favourite, assessing his relationship with the Queen and the rewards of office. It addresses his role in the political debates of the mid-Elizabethan period, from the question of the Queen’s marriage to the fate of Mary, Queen of Scots and the war with Spain. It discusses his consistent efforts to steer the Church of England away from puritanism, and finally asks how a man so closely associated with Catholicism could operate within Elizabeth I’s Protestant government.