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A necessary context
Arthur Aughey

2981 The politics 23/1/07 10:01 Page 163 9 Europe: a necessary context In his collection of cartoons Round the Bend (1948), the Canadian Russell Brockbank included in one of his drawings a newspaper placard with the headline ‘Fog in Channel – Continent Isolated’. Of course, this was a joke but it would not have been funny if it had not struck a chord, confirming Alan Bennett’s view that English humour is joking but not joking, serious but not serious. It was a ‘chipper’ attitude, recognisable, perhaps even considered indulgently, but also thought to be

in The politics of Englishness
Eurimages and the Funding of Dystopia
Aidan Power

Since its inception by the Council of Europe in 1989, Eurimages has been to the fore in financing European co-productions with the aim of fostering integration and cooperation in artistic and industry circles and has helped finance over 1,600 feature films, animations and documentaries. Taking as its thesis the idea that the CoE seeks to perpetuate Europes utopian ideals, despite the dystopian realities that frequently undermine both the EU and the continent at large, this article analyses select Eurimages-funded dystopian films from industrial, aesthetic and socio-cultural standpoints with a view toward decoding institutionally embedded critiques of the European project.

Film Studies
European Union re-imagined

Dominant visions have tended towards imagining Europe as an object - an entity of one sort or another. This book explores the different spaces of Europe/European Union (EU). The first part of the book presents research critically examining actor practices within familiar spaces of action - the European Parliament and the European Commission. It makes the case for the salience of research which distinguishes between spaces of 'frontstage' and 'backstage' politics and shows the interactions between the two. One cannot understand how EU gender mainstreaming policy really works unless one engages with the processes and actors involved. The second part presents research showing how, through their political work, a range of individuals and groups have sought to reconcile Europe with social representations of their industry or their nation to bring about change. It presents a case study of impact assessment of flatfish stocks in the North Sea, and contributes to the cross-fertilisation of Science and Technology Studies with a political sociology of the EU. The book shows how actors are pursuing regional interests, and the work they do in referencing Europe promotes agendas in the 'home' contexts of Scotland and canton Zurich. The final part of the book explores practices of EU government which either have been under-explored hitherto or are newly emerging. These are the knowledge work of a European consultant; measurement work to define and create a European education policy space; collective private action to give social meaning to sustainable Europe.

Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

2 Europe’s 1950s: reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression If … the European Defence Community should not become effective; if France and Germany remain apart … That would compel an agonising reappraisal of basic United States policy. (John Foster Dulles)1 Summary Reconstruction in Western Europe, completed by the early 1950s, led to unbounded optimism about future economic growth and to a strong desire for closer integration. Following the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 among ten West European countries, six went further in

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
The political and economic growth of a continent

This study interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe – including transatlantic relations – from the end of World War II up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. It weaves all the different strands of European events together into a single picture that gives the reader a deep understanding of the continent, and of its current and future challenges. The first chapters trace European reconstruction and political, economic and security developments – both in the East and in the West – leading up to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Later chapters examine the European Union's reform efforts, enlargement, movement to a single currency and emerging security role; the political and economic changes in central and Eastern Europe, including Russia; the break up of Yugoslavia and the wars that ensued; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)'s enlargement and search for a new mission. Final chapters deal with forces affecting Europe's future, such as terrorism, nationalism, religion, demographic trends and globalisation.

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Territorial party strategies in a multi-level system
Series: Devolution

This book explores how regional political parties use Europe to advance their territorial projects in times of rapid state restructuring. It examines the ways in which decentralisation and supranational integration have encouraged regional parties to pursue their strategies across multiple territorial levels. The book constitutes the first attempt to unravel the complexities of how nationalist and statewide parties manoeuvre around the twin issues of European integration and decentralisation, and exploit the shifting linkages within multi-level political systems. In a detailed comparative examination of three cases—Scotland, Bavaria and Sardinia—over a thirty-year period, it explores how integration has altered the nature of territorial party competition and identifies the limits of Europe for territorial projects. In addressing these issues, this work moves beyond present scholarship on multi-level governance to explain the diversity of regional responses to Europe. It provides insights and empirical research on the conduct of territorial party politics, and a model of territorial mobilisation in Europe.

Disintegration via monetary union

Cooperation and trust were increasingly scarce commodities in the inner councils of the EU. This book explores why the boldest initiative in the sixty-year quest to achieve a borderless Europe has exploded in the face of the EU. A close examination of each stage of the EU financial emergency that offers evidence that the European values that are supposed to provide solidarity within the twenty eight-member EU in good times and bad are flimsy and thinly distributed. The book aims to show that it is possible to view the difficulties of the EU as rooted in much longer-term decision-making. It begins with an exploration of the long-term preparations that were made to create a single currency encompassing a large part of the European Union. The book then examines the different ways in which the European Union seized the initiative from the European nation-state, from the formation of the Coal and Steel Community to the Maastricht Treaty. It focuses on the role of France and Germany in the EU. Difficulties that have arisen for the EU as it has tried to foster a new European consciousness are discussed next. The increasingly strained relationship between the EU and the democratic process is also examined. The book discusses the evolution of the crisis in the eurozone and the shortcomings which have impeded the EU from bringing it under control. It ends with a portrait of a European Union in 2013 wracked by mutual suspicions.

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The left and European integration after the crisis
Michael Holmes
Knut Roder

2008 led to a sovereign debt crisis after governments intervened to try to prop up their banking systems. This in turn contributed to the very specific Eurozone crisis that developed due to the constraints of EMU, and these three financial and economic factors in turn caused a widespread social and political crisis. The second overarching crisis is that of European integration. One analysis identified at least 13 different areas where the EU integration process has been challenged by ‘separate though related crises’ that are ‘multi-faceted in

in The European left and the financial crisis
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Making sense of Europe through data and statistics
Sotiria Grek
Martin Lawn

6 Measuring Europe: making sense of Europe through data and statistics Sotiria Grek and Martin Lawn Introduction This chapter focuses on education policy in Europe and shows its significant, yet largely disregarded, role in the making of the European Union (EU). Although education can be seen as a cornerstone for building a common European identity and collective demos, it has never been an EU ‘competency’. On the contrary, that Member States should retain formal control over education politics has been a consistent political choice. This historical reality has

in Governing Europe’s spaces
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Usages of Europe in national identity projects
Jenny Ozga
Farah Dubois-Shaik

4 Referencing Europe: usages of Europe in national identity projects Jenny Ozga and Farah Dubois-Shaik Introduction In this chapter, we work with the idea developed in the Introduction to this volume of conceptualising Europe organically, as a simultaneously real and imagined space of action that comes into being through the actions of groups of actors whose interests are socially constructed (Carter et al., 2015). In this instance, the actors in question are pursuing regional interests, and the work they do in referencing Europe promotes agendas in the ‘home

in Governing Europe’s spaces