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A spirited exchange 1760-1960
Editor: Avril Horner

The essays in this book demonstrate the importance of translation and European writing in the development of the Gothic novel. Cross-cultural exchanges occurred with the translation of novels by English writers into French. The book first situates works by British writers and American writers within a European context and legacy. Next, it offers readings of less-known works by Gothic authors. The book introduces the reader to a range of neglected, albeit influential, European Gothic texts which originated in Russian, Spanish, French and German. It argues that the level of ideological manipulation, which occurred as texts were translated, mistranslated, appropriated, misappropriated, altered and adapted from one language to another, was so considerable and so systematic that generic mutations were occasioned. The book suggests that Matthew Lewis's The Monk offers a few models of femininity, all deriving from and intended to disrupt, previous literary representations. It focuses on the automatic and the systematic in Charles Maturin's work in relation to Denis Diderot's contemporary philosophical conceptualizations of consciousness and identity. Gothic treacheries are dealt with through Samuel Coleridge's analysis of misappropriation of Friedrich Schiller's Die Rauber. The book also discusses the representations of ritual violence, as sanctioned by the Catholic Church, in English and Spanish pictorial and literary texts between 1796 and 1834. It talks about the Arabesque narrative technique of embedding tales within tales to create a maze in which even the storyteller becomes lost, reflecting the Eastern notion that the created is more important than the creator.

Neil Cornwell

, bringing into play artistic works or figures (painters or paintings, musical composers or works, the fate of the artist, the animation of images or statues). In all such cases, some elements at least of the basic, or classic, Gothic ingredients need to be present for the term ‘Gothic’ to remain justifiable. Beyond these widely attested categories of the European Gothic tale, vestigial Gothic traces are to

in European Gothic
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Avril Horner

European Gothic: A Spirited Exchange 1760-1960 seeks to challenge the tyranny of Anglo-American narratives of the Gothic. It offers a range of essays that demonstrate the importance of translation and European writing in the development of the Gothic novel, a vampire-like phenomenon that thrives on the blood of others. The volume thus charts the movement of Gothic

in European Gothic
British romantic drama and the Gothic treacheries of Coleridge’s Remorse
Peter Mortensen

and noteworthy body of Romantic drama in Britain: the large-scale invasion of closets and stages, both in London and in the provinces, by European Gothic spectacles and bourgeois tragedies. The 1790s and early 1800s, as Allardyce Nicoll has shown, were the heyday of translation-drama in British theatrical history ( 1927 : 56-73). Not only did both Drury Lane Theatre and Covent Garden Theatre rely on foreign

in European Gothic
Embedded narrative and the treatment of boundaries in The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (1797-1815)
Ahlam Alaki

quite plausible that Potocki would have read either or both texts during his stay in Paris and London in 1791.) (my translation) However, I shall argue that the idea of manuscripts with embedded stories precedes the emergence of the European Gothic tradition. This textual strategy links the oriental tradition with the Gothic

in European Gothic
French fiction and Djuna Barnes’s Nightwood
Avril Horner

and her portrayal of the grotesque (Herring 1995 : 299). It also seems to have left its mark on Jeanette Winterson’s Sexing the Cherry and Carter’s Nights at the Circus. The French ‘detour’ into ‘filthiness’, then, found its way across the Channel and the Atlantic via the ‘Colonie américaine’ in Paris. European Gothic has a way of spiriting itself into even the cleanest of Anglo-Saxon beds

in European Gothic
Representations of ritual violence in English and Spanish Romanticism
Joan Curbet

the continuation of a solemn and venerable tradition that has its roots in a mythified past. Foremost among the causes that prevented the circulation and influence of European Gothic in early nineteenth-century Spain, was the persistence of strict censorship, which increased after the restoration of Fernando VII in 1814, and which continued until his death in 1833 (with the brief exception of the

in European Gothic
Cultural misappropriation and the construction of the Gothic
Terry Hale

The act of learning to read translations makes possible histories of the Gothic in cultures where it has long been thought the Gothic had no history worth telling. In the cultural marketplace of the mid-nineteenth century, French translations squeezed out English translations just as in the present marketplace British and American works tend to dominate international bestseller lists. Paradoxically, if the English Gothic novel was the product of the application of a set of philosophical and aesthetic criteria to the French sentimental adventure story, the roman noir marks the point at which those same criteria are filtered out as English texts make their way in turn to France. Maurice Levy may be able to point to more than a hundred English Gothic novels translated into French, but as the Gothic novel radiated out across Europe, the range of translated works became considerably restricted.

in European Gothic
Matthew Lewis’s The Monk and the Marquis de Sade’s La Nouvelle Justine
Angela Wright

This chapter begins by tracing the mutual influences which the texts of the Marquis de Sade and Matthew Gregory Lewis shared. Lewis is rightfully accorded a prominent position in critical surveys of the English Gothic novel due to his notorious production The Monk. The de Sade has also recently been afforded a great deal of critical and biographical attention. In all, The Monk offers the following three core models of femininity that are both indebted to previous literary representations and intended to disrupt them: Antonia, Agnes and Matilda. Besides locational and atmospheric resemblances, there are also clear thematic parallels between Justine, ou les malheurs de la vertu, The Monk, and de Sade's subsequent La Nouvelle Justine. The chapter concludes by charting the reciprocity of themes and ideas between Lewis and de Sade.

in European Gothic
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Enlightenment, automata, and the theatre of terror
Victor Sage

This chapter argues the case for a partial overlap between Diderot and Charles Maturin who are conventionally labelled Enlightenment and Gothic. In Diderot's novel, the notion of the automaton is linked to the system of an anti-society of isolated Cartesian cells. And it becomes associated with horror and superstition, a phalanstery of mastery and slavery which anticipates the automatism of the Marquis de Sade. Diderot himself had been imprisoned in Vincennes and unnerved by the experience to the point of apparent capitulation to the authorities, so he had studied at first hand the condition he writes about. Automatism is indeed part of the theatre of terror and the relation between hypocrisy, acting and ritualized behaviour is part of Maturin's meditation. Maturin and Diderot independently share a self-conscious fictional heritage whose master trope is the theatre; this shapes the different questions they ask of the novel genre in a common manner.

in European Gothic