Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 339 items for :

  • "European Economic Community" x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Terry Macintyre

Chapter 8 Anglo-German relations and Britain’s policy towards the European Economic Community L ooking back on the 1960s and the time of the Wilson governments there can be little surprise at the turn of events that brought about Britain’s second application for membership of the EEC. Although President Charles de Gaulle’s veto in 1963 stopped Britain’s turn towards Europe dead in its tracks, the economic and geo­political imperatives that had motivated Britain’s first application did not simply disappear. Rather, by the time Labour took office in October 1964

in Anglo-German relations during the Labour governments 1964–70
NATO strategy, détente and European integration
Author: Terry Macintyre

Speaking at West Point in 1962, Dean Acheson observed that Britain had lost an empire and had still to find a new role. This book explains why, as Britain's Labour government contemplated withdrawal from east of Suez, ministers came to see that Britain's future role would be as a force within Europe and that, to this end, and to gain entry into the European Economic Community, a close relationship with the Federal Republic of Germany would be essential. This account of Anglo-German relations during the 1960s reveals insights into how both governments reacted to a series of complex issues and why, despite differences that might have led to strains, a good understanding was maintained. Its approach brings together material covering NATO strategy, détente and European integration. The main argument of the book is reinforced by material drawn from British and German primary sources covering the period as a whole, from interviews with some of Harold Wilson's key advisers and from newspaper reports, as well as from a wide range of secondary publications. The introduction of material from German sources adds to its authenticity. The book contributes to what we know about Cold War history, and should help to redefine some of the views about the relationship between Britain and Germany during the 1960s.

The anti-Marketeers

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the opponents of Britain's first attempt to join the European Economic Community (EEC) between the announcement of Harold Macmillan's new policy initiative in July 1961 and General de Gaulle's veto of Britain's application for membership in January 1963. In particular, it examines the role of national identity in shaping both the formulation and articulation of arguments put forward by these opponents of Britain's policy. To date, studies of Britain's unsuccessful bid for entry have focused on high political analysis of diplomacy and policy formulation. In most accounts, only passing reference is made to domestic opposition. This book redresses the balance, providing a complete depiction of the opposition movement and a distinctive approach that proceeds from a ‘low-political’ viewpoint. As such, it emphasizes protest and populism of the kind exercised by, among others, Fleet Street crusaders at the Daily Express, pressure groups such as the Anti-Common Market League and Forward Britain Movement, expert pundits like A.J.P. Taylor, Sir Arthur Bryant and William Pickles, as well as constituency activists, independent parliamentary candidates, pamphleteers, letter writers and maverick MPs. In its consideration of a group largely overlooked in previous accounts, the book provides essential insights into the intellectual, structural, populist and nationalist dimensions of early Euroscepticism.

Series: Pocket Politics
Author: Matt Qvortrup

This book is a series of 'remarks' and 'sketches', which together form a mosaic to show how the use of the referendum followed a strict, almost Hegelian pattern of the 'unfolding of freedom' throughout the ages. It outlines how referendums have been used in Britain and abroad, presenting some of the arguments for and against this institution. The book commences with an outline of the world history of the referendum from the French Revolution to the present day, and then discusses the British experience up to 2010. The book examines the referendum on European Economic Community membership in 1975, considering the alternative vote referendum in 2011 and the referendum on Scottish independence in 2014. Next, the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum in 2016, especially the campaign leading up to it, is discussed. After the analysis of the Brexit referendum, the book touches on the Maltese referendum on divorce in 2011. It summarises some of the trends and tendencies in the use of the referendum internationally, highlighting that Britain is not a unique case in holding referendums. The book shows that, notwithstanding the general assumptions about referendums, these are not usually associated with demagogues and populism, but the referendum has tended to be used as a constitutional safeguard. However, in Britain, a country without a formal written constitution, these safeguards were not in place. For the referendum to work, for this institution to be a constitutional safeguard, it must be a people's shield and not the government's sword.

Ireland as a case study
Author: Gavin Barrett

The role of national parliaments in the European Union (EU) has developed considerably over time. This book focuses on one parliament as a case study in this regard: the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. The basic structure of that parliament is modelled on that of the United Kingdom. Like the United Kingdom, Ireland joined the then European Communities on 1 January 1973. Within a relatively short period from the date of Ireland's joining the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1973, it became clear that major structural change to the Communities would be needed if the EEC were ever to fulfil its potential. The book examines the initial adaptations of its parliament to European integration and how Ireland's domestic parliamentary accommodation of membership slowly changed over time. It focuses on the considerable impact on domestic parliamentary arrangements of the recent banking and foreign debt crises and of the Treaty of Lisbon. An assessment of the role of the Oireachtas in European law and policy during the lifetimes of the 30th Dail (2007-11) and the 31st Dail (2011-16) follows. The book discusses the formation of the Joint Oireachtas Committee on European Union Affairs, which held its first meeting in private on 19 July 2016, and its first public meeting on 7 September. However, Ireland's position as a "slow adaptor" to European integration has meant that the Oireachtas has had more ground to make up than many other legislatures.

Sonja Tiernan

1 Irish historical and global context On 24 July 1975, David Norris, Chairman of the first national gay rights organisation, appeared on RTÉ’s Last House television programme in an interview with co-host Áine O’Connor. Ireland was then the last remaining member of the European Economic Community to retain criminal penalties against male homosexual activity. In Ireland, homosexual men could still face legal penalties of imprisonment of between ten years to life for engaging in consensual sexual activity. These penalties stemmed from two archaic laws introduced

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
Abstract only
European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
Boyka Stefanova

of the conflict: territorial claims, annexation, and external control. It first created a sectoral arrangement binding the French and German war industries into the European Coal and Steel Community (1951). The European Economic Community (1957) ensured the continued expansion of integration into a systemic open-ended process of building common institutions and policies. As a result of incremental institutional

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
Abstract only
Mervyn O’Driscoll

1 Introduction West Germany played a pivotal role in encouraging the Republic of Ireland’s adaptation to a ‘European’ path. Its influence was both direct and indirect. Quite simply, Ireland was enticed by the tantalising trade opportunities offered by the rude economic good health of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The FRG was the industrial magnet at the heart of the European Economic Community (EEC) from the late 1950s. It promised to counteract Ireland’s over-​reliance on the relatively underperforming British economy. West Germany’s dual importance

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

-member European Economic Community grew to the current fifteen-member European Union. The changes in EU membership that occurred over time have clearly influenced the geographical scope of, and political climate for, EU development cooperation policy. Further such changes can be expected in the first decades of the twentyfirst century, as the Union’s membership is likely to grow significantly in the near feature by enlargement with perhaps another thirteen countries in central, (south-) eastern and southern Europe. For Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland

in EU development cooperation
Daniel Finn

does not mean that there has been a level playing field in the Irish referendums – still less that the ground has been tilted in favour of the ‘No’ side, as some pundits have claimed. But the contests have been much closer to parity than supporters of European integration would like. Why, then, did people vote down treaties that were supported by the main political parties, the business lobby, most trade unions and the great bulk of the print media? Previous referendums had been passed without difficulty: the vote on accession to the European Economic Community in

in Ireland under austerity