The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
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McCall , C. ( 2007 ) ‘Creating border space in Ireland: an EU
approach to ethno-national threat and insecurity’, in A.
Warwick & J.
Anderson (eds) Geopolitics of EuropeanUnionenlargement: the
fortress empire , pp. 61–77 . Abingdon : Routledge
noted that he could not have been elected without British votes,
as well as those of others.
During his Presidency he was, as his lecture emphasised, committed
to the principle of EuropeanUnionenlargement. He noted that the
negotiations with Romania and Bulgaria were then on track, and both
countries did, in fact, join the Union in 2007. He was also optimistic
about the prospects for Croatia, which had emerged out of the debacle
surrounding the breakup of Yugoslavia. This country, for centuries
linked with Hungary, and then part of the state of Yugoslavia which
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
implications of the current EuropeanUnionenlargement
process and the further changes in EU membership that are likely to occur in
that context are difficult to forecast at this stage. In any case, there will be an
increase in the number of member states that are facing serious development
challenges and problems themselves. One would expect this circumstance to
be likely to reduce general support, and perhaps available resources, for EC
Advancing European integration
The European integration process was for quite some time primarily internally
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek
, Negotiation and EuropeanUnionEnlargement ( New York : Cambridge University Press , 2009 ), 3 , 33 ; H. Sjursen , ‘ Why Expand? The Question of Legitimacy and Justification in the EU’s Enlargement Policy ,’ Journal of Common Market Studies , 40 : 3 ( 2002 ), 497 and citations therein. Defenders of this approach have argued that barring relatively poor candidates from entry would destabilise the EU politically, threatening the existing benefits member-states already enjoy. See L. Friis and A. Murphy , ‘ The European Union and Central and Eastern Europe
Ibid., pp. 64–8.
‘Arms trade, human rights, and EuropeanUnionenlargement: the record of candidate countries’, Human
Rights Watch Briefing Paper (2002), http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/arms/eu_briefing.htm .
Claes G. Alvstam and Alf Brodin, ‘An
: Ashgate, 2002).
80 For details of the Commission’s continuing analysis of the enlargement process, see the
Directorate General for Enlargement, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/.
81 See, for example, David Brown, ‘The European Union’s Response to the problems of
Organised Crime and Human Trafficking’, European Security, 13:1–2 (2003), ‘Storming the
Fortress: The External Border Regime in an Enlarged Europe’, in Hilary Ingham and Mike
Ingham (eds), EU Expansion to the East: Problems and Prospects (Cheltenham: Edward
Elgar, 2002), ‘EuropeanUnionEnlargement and
Introduction ( New York : Continuum , 2000 ), 142 .
37 Habermas, ‘Why Europe Needs a Constitution,’ 18; C. J. Schneider , Conflict, Negotiation and EuropeanUnionEnlargement ( New York : Cambridge University Press , 2009 ), 3 , 33 ; H. Sjursen , ‘ Why Expand? The Question of Legitimacy and Justification in the EU’s Enlargement Policy ,’ Journal of Common Market Studies , 40 : 3 ( 2002 ), 497 .
38 Claus Offe , ‘ The Democratic Welfare State in an Integrating Europe ,’ in M. Greven and L.W. Pauly (eds), Democracy Beyond the State? The
Policy , Vol. 11(4), 2004 , pp.
A. Higashino, ‘For the Sake of
“Peace and Security”? The Role of Security in the
EuropeanUnionEnlargement Eastwards’, Cooperation and
Conflict , Vol. 39(4), 2004 , pp.
reform process was continued and implemented and progress reached on the issue of the still-divided Cyprus.
Behind the EU’s commitment lay strong US pressure and Turkey’s
agreement to lift its veto, referred to above, against letting the EU’s
Rapid Reaction Force use NATO resources – an issue that had hampered
the Force’s realisation since the 1999 Helsinki Summit.
The inner logic of EU enlargement: ten new members in 2004 and more in line
For the EuropeanUnion, enlargement is central to its very essence and
raison d’être. Previous chapters have related how the United