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Anthropology, European imperialism, and the politics of knowledge

Many questions present themselves when considering the historical relationship between anthropology and empire following the Scramble for Africa. These include the extent of imperial fortunes in Africa, rising and falling with officials' knowledge of the people under their jurisdiction. This book looks at the institutional frameworks of anthropology, and shows that the colonial project to order Africa, intellectually and politically, was a messy and not-so comprehensive endeavor. It first considers the roles of metropolitan researchers and institutes such as the colonial ethnographers active in French West Africa, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Berlin, and the British-based International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. The book deals with the role of African ethnograpghers for their study on African teaching assistants and schoolmasters-cum-ethnographers, and the study of Jomo Kenyatta's journey to produce Facing Mount Kenya. Swiss missionaries undertook discovery and domestication first on European soil before it was transferred to African soils and societies. Primordial imagination at work in equatorial Africa is discussed through an analysis of Fang ethnographies, and the infertility scares among Mongo in the Belgian Congo is contrasted with the Nzakara in the French Congo. Once colonial rule had been imposed, administrators and imperial managers were often forced to consider those judicial and social rules that had governed Africans' lives and had predated colonialism. Studies of Italian Northeast Africa, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and French West Africa reveal the uneven ways in which ethnographic knowledge was pursued and applied in this respect.

Open Access (free)
The imperial metropolis of Heart of Darkness
Laura Chrisman

concurrently with the more sensational operations of overseas violence. As Heart of Darkness indicates, within and across metropolitan everyday life, the economic, political and cultural elements of imperialism reproduced themselves in ways that were quiet,complex and apparently unspectacular. I will outline here some of the ways in which late nineteenth-century European imperialism inheres in the textures of daily labour and leisure in Conrad’s novella. I will also suggest that the Company’s structures and agents – including Kurtz – need to be reinterpreted through this

in Postcolonial contraventions
Imperial fictions: Doctor Who, post-racial slavery and other liberal humanist fantasies
Susana Loza

looks, while denying or minimizing access to power for its object, the one looked at’.18 The liberal humanist whiteness of Doctor Who is most clearly laid bare in episodes that thematise the sins of European imperialism: slavery, genocide and dispossession. In such episodes it becomes evident that the show is framed and filtered through the Doctor’s cosmopolitan, colonial and colourblind gaze and thus tells stories ‘from an uncontested White British viewpoint’,19 not from the perspective of the subjugated and enslaved. In the tenth version of Doctor Who, the most

in Adjusting the contrast
Lenin and Langston Hughes
Matthieu Renault

encouraged former slaves from the ‘New World’ to identify with the colonised masses of Asia and, to an even greater degree, of Africa, who toiled under the yoke of European imperialism. Indeed, black Americans would soon be defined as a colonised people from within . This history is well documented. What is less well known is that connections between the ‘colonial question’ and the ‘Black question’ had already been established, in a different way and with different implications, in Lenin’s little-known pre-1917 writings on

in The Red and the Black
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Liberalism, Muslims and nation-state values
Sivamohan Valluvan

violent sake. It is instead the mobilisation of a liberal common sense rooted in European imperialism that sees the transcendent value order constitutive of the nation being gravely endangered by the excess of typically Muslim outsiders who call the country home but are not of the nation. This then becomes an entirely sanctioned, eminently reasonable form of nation-state Othering that exercises a particular strong draw for those often middle-class types who style themselves as polite, moderate and worldly – types who are instinctively averse to the classed vulgarity of

in The clamour of nationalism
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Race and nation in twenty-first-century Britain

Nationalism has reasserted itself today as the political force of our times, remaking European politics wherever one looks. Britain is no exception, and in the midst of Brexit, it has even become a vanguard of nationalism's confident return to the mainstream. Brexit, in the course of generating a historically unique standard of sociopolitical uncertainty and constitutional intrigue, tore apart the two-party compact that had defined the parameters of political contestation for much of twentieth-century Britain. This book offers a wide-ranging picture of the different theoretical accounts relevant to addressing nationalism. It briefly repudiates the increasingly common attempts to read contemporary politics through the lens of populism. The book explores the assertion of 'muscular liberalism' and civic nationalism. It examines more traditional, conservative appeals to racialised notions of blood, territory, purity and tradition as a means of reclaiming the nation. The book also examines how neoliberalism, through its recourse to discourses of meritocracy, entrepreneurial self and individual will, alongside its exaltation of a 'points-system' approach to the ills of immigration, engineers its own unique rendition of the nationalist crisis. There are a number of important themes through which the process of liberal nationalism can be documented - what Arun Kundnani captured, simply and concisely, as the entrenchment of 'values racism'. These include the 'faux-feminist' demonisation of Muslims.

Jean-Claude Gardes

entertainment; its favourite themes were overtly political: the denunciation of the imperial regime and its representatives; criticism of the defenders of the established order (police, judiciary, army, churches, Junkers, bourgeoisie, and capitalists); support for the social, cultural, and electoral struggles of social democracy, including the fight against (Prussian) militarism and German and European imperialism. Indeed, this struggle occupied a choice position in the columns of the review. Analysis of the contents of the illustrations on the front page

in Comic empires