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Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Stephen Snelders

. However, as Chapter 8 also shows, they never succeeded in shaking the foundations of a supernatural treef belief among the Afro-​Surinamese. Conclusion The widespread belief in treef among the Afro-​Surinamese combined with the slaves’ unwillingness to disclose details of their medical and spiritual views and practices to their European masters contributed to European ideas about the slaves’ presumed indifference and fatalism. However, given the nature of the medical market in Suriname in the age of slavery there was no reason why slaves would cooperate with their

in Leprosy and colonialism
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Brian McFarlane and Deane Williams

in May 1989. As we shall note elsewhere in this study, Winterbottom’s work often seems to be influenced more by European masters than by forebears in British cinema, with the possible exception of Anderson. With producer Alan Horrox, Winterbottom conducted a series of on-screen interviews with some of the great names of Bergman’s cinema: cinematographer Sven Nykvist, actors such as Liv Ullmann, Bibi Andersson and Max Von

in Michael Winterbottom
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Max Silverman

the tension between the opposing pulls of universalism and particularism (which will at times place the Jew in the camp of the white European master, at times in the camp of the victim of the master’s objectifying and racialising gaze), Fanon will ultimately tend towards particularism so as to avoid being caught up in the pitfalls of a liberal universalising of humanity and to emphasise the distinctiveness of the Black’s lived experience. In a sense, then, the uncertainties and contradictions in Peau noire concerning Blacks and Jews which arise from Fanon’s attempt

in Frantz Fanon’s 'Black Skin, White Masks
Daniel Szechi

was eventually to bring it down in 1789. Bankers like Aeneas Macdonald and John Waters were active agents in modernising France’s financial sector. John Holker almost single-handedly created a modern textile industry in France, and was ennobled for his efforts. 16 All in all, there can be no doubt that a lot of talent left the British Isles as a result of the failures of the Jacobite cause, and it served its new European masters well. The Jacobite diaspora in the world beyond Europe consisted more of individuals who occasionally register in our surviving

in The Jacobites (second edition)
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Nellie’s dance
Chloe Campbell

: By the early 1920s, the deaths of several African servants from beatings at the hands of their European masters earned Kenya’s white settlers an unenviable reputation for brutality … Physical violence was an integral and characteristic part of European domination in Kenya from the beginnings of colonial rule, and by the 1920s it was largely engrained as

in Race and empire
Pablo Picasso’s Guernica
Duncan Wheeler

of the great European masters – ‘an unending source of joy and satisfaction’. 13 The financier and politician’s respect for the artist grew as he discovered his formidable business acumen. 14 The onset and subsequent escalation of the Cold War constituted a fast track to respectability for the Francoist regime, and a public-relations obstacle for Picasso’s otherwise rising fortunes. Whilst Guernica had been both depoliticised and deterritorialised by MoMA’s decision not to make any reference to Spain or the Civil War, Picasso paid a price for

in Following Franco
Bruce Woodcock

. These included works by American and European masters such as Beckett, Bellow, Nabokov, Robbe-Grillet, Kerouac and Faulkner, experimental writers with interests in the bizarre or surreal. Carey has frequently recalled the impact of Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying with its structural divisions so that the story is ‘told from different points of view … and people often contradict each other’. 24 It was the ‘odd use of language’ which attracted him to stories like Kerouac’s ‘The Railroad Earth’, and which he found ‘very liberating, exciting, wonderful’. 25 He would later

in Peter Carey
Max Silverman

universalising language and culture of the European master are the traps posed Reflections on the human question 115 for the colonial subject whose own culture is devalued when measured against the values of ‘humanity’. It is true that Fanon and Lévi-Strauss arrive at this position via different routes. Fanon comes to the critique of the West via the route of personal experience in Martinique and then metropolitan France, the Negritude writers and Sartrean phenomenology, while LéviStrauss comes to it via the developing awareness among western anthropologists and

in Frantz Fanon’s 'Black Skin, White Masks
Memsahibs, ayahs and wet-nurses
Indrani Sen

mortified at the idea of low-class ‘native’ servants harbouring caste prejudices against their European masters and mistresses. Thus, in the 1830s, the unmarried, intellectually inclined Emma Roberts, who made astute observations on colonial society in her numerous books and articles, voiced her indignation at the fact that ‘none but a low Hindoo would take the office’ of an ayah due

in Gendered transactions