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International norms and domestic policy change
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On 1 October 1989, eleven gay male couples gathered in the registry office of Copenhagen's city chambers to take part in a civil ceremony, entering into a newly established entity called a registered partnership (RP). This book examines same-sex unions (SSU) policy developments western democracies and explains why the overwhelming majority of these countries has implemented a national law to recognise gay and lesbian couples. It presents an overview of recent developments in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) politics as well as the academic literatures that seek to interpret and analyse these developments. The study discussed adds to constructivist work on the international human rights regime, which has been a prominent focus of the literature. The book also examines the processes of international policy diffusion. It traces the development of a soft-law norm for relationship recognition within the broader European polity and illustrates how dissemination of this norm taken by transnational LGBT rights activists and supportive policy elites. The book presents in-depth case studies of Germany, the Netherlands, Canada and the US to tease out the extent and causal mechanisms by which the SSU norm has influenced policy debates. It looks at the ways in which the SSU norm has shaped policy discourse about relationship recognition. The book examines why countries with broadly similar parliamentary structures, party systems, levels of religiosity and confessional heritages have adopted different models of SSU policies. Finally, it inspects how much the European SSU norm has affected policy debates in Canada and the US.

The early practice of privateering
Benjamin de Carvalho
and
Halvard Leira

By the time most European polities started looking overseas in earnest in the late fifteenth century, the Iberian powers had already been able to secure papal sanction for what amounted to a global duopoly. 1 The Treaty of Tordesillas gave Spain and Portugal exclusive rights to half of the world each. A century later, both the duopoly and the religious order of Europe had been upended. A key

in The Sea and International Relations
Katy Hayward

M1634 - HAYWARD TEXT.qxp:ANDY Q7 27/1/09 13:23 Page 189 8 Governance, state and polity This chapter examines the conceptualisation of ‘governance’ in Irish official discourse in relation to both the Irish ‘state’ and the Europeanpolity’. ‘State’ and ‘polity’ constitute the broad conceptual and institutional supporting frameworks for the meaning and significance of governance in nation-statehood and European Union respectively. The traditional narrative of the state is national self-determination, i.e. quest of the nation to decide and direct its own forms

in Irish nationalism and European integration
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The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Kelly Kollman

specifically, and in keeping with theories of international socialisation, I argue that the creation and dissemination of a norm for Kollman 01_Tonra 01 03/12/2012 12:14 Page 3 Introduction same-sex relationship recognition in the broader European polity in the mid 1990s have focused national lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT)3 movements on SSU policy, allowed these movements to frame state relationship recognition as a human right and helped activists to put SSUs on their country’s political agenda. Further, the dissemination of the norm has induced many

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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The globalisation of an idea
Kelly Kollman

SSU recognition (marriage v. registered partnership v. domestic cohabitants)? The first half of the chapter focuses on the question of convergent policy change. After describing the wave of SSU policy adoptions, I trace the development of a soft law norm for same-sex relationship recognition in the European polity and demonstrate the ways in which this norm has shaped, influenced and ultimately catalysed these national SSU policy adoptions. In particular, interview and document evidence with policy elites and activists at the European and national levels illustrates

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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Vicki Squire
,
Nina Perkowski
,
Dallal Stevens
, and
Nick Vaughan-Williams

that the ‘humiliating conditions’ that drive people on the move to come to Europe have been produced in large part by inequalities that were historically created by European colonial powers (Bhambra, 2016 : 194). Following Bhambra, we contend that the failure to address Europe's own colonial history partially explains why Europe and its politicians seem ‘unable to address their postcolonial present, or even recognise it as something other than an external intrusion disrupting an otherwise ordered European polity’ (Bhambra, 2016 : 188). Rejecting the common view of

in Reclaiming migration

The European Union after Brexit addresses the ways in which Brexit has changed and will change European Union politics: the forces, mechanisms and stakes of an unprecedented transformation of the European polity. How will the EU operate without one of its key diplomatic and international military partners? What will happen to its priorities, internal balance(s) of power, and legislation without the reliably liberal and Eurosceptic United Kingdom? What are the effects of the Brexit negotiations on the EU? In general, what happens when an ‘ever closer union’ founded on a virtuous circle of economic, social, and political integration is called into question? This book is largely positive about the future of the EU after Brexit, but it suggests that the process of European integration has gone into reverse, with Brexit coming amidst other developments that disrupt the optimistic trajectory of integration. Contributors focus on areas spanning foreign policy, political economy, public policy, and citizenship, with chapters covering topics such as international trade, the internal market, freedom of movement, the European legal system, networks, security relations, social Europe and the impact of Brexit on Central and Eastern Europe. Chapters are grounded in comparative politics, political economy, and institutionalist approaches to politics and economics.

Abstract only
Niilo Kauppi

European Parliament in the career patterns of French politicians. The increasing interdependence of the French and European polities has led to significant developments at the centre and the periphery of the French political field. New groups of politicians and civil servants, types of political resources, and posts in the administration and political institutions have come into being. Some of these transformations, occurring mostly at the centre, have received scholarly and journalistic attention. Others, such as the formation of marginal groups, have largely gone

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
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Niilo Kauppi

this work, the development of a more democratically accountable European polity has, for the time being, stalled.

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Niilo Kauppi

scholars from studying European integration in all its complexity. Country specialists have neglected the supranational dimensions of European polity-building while international relations specialists have not been interested in national processes. Projected into theoretical discourse this opposes intergovernmentalism to supranationalism. This division of labour has hampered the analysis of processes that are fundamentally both national and supranational. According to intergovernmentalists the European Union is essentially formed of states, whereas supranationalists

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union