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Aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews
Amikam Nachmani

2 European realities: aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews Who are the Muslims in Europe? Who are the migrants in the various European countries? For example, 10 per cent of the 16.3 million Dutch population are immigrants; 886,000 of them, 5.5 per cent, are Muslims, mainly Moroccans and Turks; 60 per cent are under 35, compared to 40 per cent in the general Dutch population. Many of the allochtonen (immigrants) live in ‘the Muslim ghettos’ that nowadays surround the Dutch urban centres. So much of what tolerant Dutch society

in Haunted presents
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Europeans, Muslim Immigrants and the onus of European–Jewish Histories

Relations between Europe and its Muslim minorities constitute an extensive focus for discussion both within and beyond the Continent. This book reports on the years mainly between 2005 and 2015 and focuses on the exploitation of recent European history when describing relations and the prospects for the nominally 'Christian' majority and Muslim minority. The discourse often references the Jews of Europe as a guiding precedent. The manifold references to the annals of the Jews during the 1930s, the Second World War and the Holocaust, used by both the Muslim minorities and the European 'white' (sic) majority presents an astonishing and instructive perspective. When researching Europe and its Muslim minorities, one is astonished by the alleged discrimination that the topic produces, in particular the expressions embodied in Islamophobia, Europhobia and anti-Semitism. The book focuses on the exemplary European realities surrounding the 'triangular' interactions and relations between the Europeans, Muslims and Jews. Pork soup, also known as 'identity soup', has been used as a protest in France and Belgium against multicultural life in Europe and against the Muslim migrants who allegedly enjoyed government benefits. If the majority on all sides of the triangle were to unite and marginalize the extreme points of the triangle, not by force but by goodwill, reason and patience, then in time the triangle would slowly but surely resolve itself into a circle. The Jews, Christians, Muslims and non-believers of Europe have before them a challenge.

Some concluding reflections
Michelle Pace
Jan Claudius Völkel

produced at the time that it was and with which (political, ideological) intentions it was produced. As Timothy Mitchell’s ( 1989 ) article ‘The world as exhibition’ emphasises, the ‘Western’ world is obsessed with representation. In this edited volume we therefore also shed light on how the ‘rest’ represents the Western world in return. We thus shifted between the ‘European gaze’ in the production of knowledge on the MENA and the ways in which European reality (especially in the form of its colonial history) is

in Knowledge production in higher education
Michael Mannin

, colonial hubris and fascist/Nazi and post-war Communist experiences of modernisation and other historic cultural memories are all aspects of complex social/historical construction by elites and peoples of contemporary ‘European reality’. Among existing member states, the EU-isation process is influenced by past national and European constructions of the ‘present reality’ that is more than evident in the EU’s current ongoing economic malaise (Mair and Zielonka, 2002; Zielonka, 2001). German and French, British and Greek, Finnish and Polish elite and mass perspectives

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
The view from Budapest
László Borhi

Budapest was announced. Soviet reactions were mixed, Shevardnadze welcoming the visit and declaring that Moscow would respect nations’ right to choose their own path.80 But an article in the Soviet army periodical, Krasnaya Zvezda, of 12 May accused the USA of ‘driving a wedge between the socialist countries’, of ‘trying to alter the balance of power on the continent’ and of ‘casting doubt on European realities’.81 In a private message on 4 July Gorbachev asked Bush to be ‘more considerate if he wants to help’.82 Secretary of State James Baker understood that the Soviet

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001. It also bound NATO closer to Russia in the protection of its interests vis-àvis its southern neighbours in central Asia.23 Furthermore, the NATORussia Council aligned NATO to a new European reality, which transcended the former Cold War divide between East and West, as symbolised by the forthcoming enlargement of the European Union. The United States (and Canada) could thereby retain a formal role in fostering security in that more integrated Europe. On the other hand, the agreement by the same token diluted NATO

in Destination Europe
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Brighter European–Muslim–Jewish futures?
Amikam Nachmani

accepting nor dismissing the linkage he proposes between the Holocaust and the contemporary Muslim plight in Europe. Suffice it to say that the subject of our work – the ‘triangle’ and the never-ending historical and contemporary inputs that it pours into present and future European realities – is also the gist of Gross’s painful insights; hence we are fortunate to be permitted to cite from his article as follows: Eastern Europe’s crisis of shame Jan T. Gross BERLIN – As thousands of refugees pour into Europe to escape the horrors of war, with many dying along the way, a

in Haunted presents
Open Access (free)
Domestic change through European integration
Otmar Höll
Johannes Pollack
, and
Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann

corporatist system of avoiding conflict remains an open question. Conclusions: the persistence of ambivalence? To assess the changes in the Austrian policy-making process induced by European integration is somewhat difficult owing to the relatively short period of EU membership. Like all institutional change, the adaptation of national institutions, rules, norms and forms of behaviour to the European reality occurs at a rather slow pace, and such changes are far from easy to measure. Assessments which might hold true for some institutions cannot be simply applied to others

in Fifteen into one?
Dinaw Mengestu’s The Beautiful Things that Heaven Bears (2007) and Teju Cole’s Open City (2011)

Brussels ‘with the idea that all the Africans in the city were from the Congo. I knew the colonial relationship, I had a basic understanding of the history of the slave state there, and that had dislodged any other idea from my head’ (138). He is therefore surprised to enter a club, the dance floor full with people he assumes are Congolese, and be told that ‘everyone was Rwandan’, contemplating that most of those dancing ‘would have been teenagers during the genocide’ (139). Julius soon begins to understand that the ‘European reality’ of ‘flexible borders’ means that

in The politics of male friendship in contemporary American fiction
Stanley R. Sloan

, the evidence from the early years of the twenty-first century was that EU members had not yet shown the willingness to sacrifice sufficient national sovereignty to make a common currency work effectively, to say nothing of giving up control over defense and foreign policy to a central European authority. This remained the European reality in 2020. Its contours influenced assessments of the future of transatlantic relations and practical planning for that future. Insufficient NATO–EU collaboration One of the key sources of Western weakness was the inability of

in Defense of the West (second edition)