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A catalyst for change

5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 3/9/09 16:45 Page 12 2 Europeanisation: a catalyst for change Nicholas Rees and Bernadette Connaughton Introduction Europeanisation has emerged as a relatively new yet significant area in the study of European integration. It represents a shift in conceptualising developments in the European Union and presents opportunities for structuring and analysing the impact of the EU on the polity, politics and policies of member states. Europeanisation is critical to our understanding of transformations of the national system

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
UK central government and the European Union

It is some thirty-five years since the United Kingdom joined what is now called the European Union. What has been the impact of the EU on UK central government? Has it been transformed or merely adapted to new pressures and requirements? This book explores the ‘Europeanisation’ of the work of civil servants and ministers and how they engage with the EU. Drawing on fresh empirical evidence—including interviews with over 200 serving and retired officials and ministers—it offers a comprehensive analysis of the spreading impact of European integration across government. The study is placed in the context of political divisions over the European Union but the book outlines the often neglected way in which the EU has transformed the business of government. This account charts the process from the Macmillan government's 1961 application to join the European Communities through to the end of Tony Blair's premiership. The book examines the character and timing of responses across government, covering the core government departments and also those more recently affected, such as the Ministry of Defence. It argues that central government has organized itself efficiently to deal with the demands of EU membership despite the often controversial party-political divisions over Europe. However, in placing the book's findings in comparative context, the conclusion is that the effectiveness of UK governments in the EU has been less striking.

To what extent did Europeanisation contribute to Ireland's transformation from ‘poor relation’ to being admired and emulated? This book examines how Europeanisation affected Irish policy-making and implementation and how Ireland maximised the policy opportunities arising from membership of the EU while preserving embedded patterns of political behaviour. The book focuses on the complex interplay of European, domestic and global factors as the explanation for the changing character of the ‘Celtic Tiger’. It contests and complements previous accounts of the Europeanisation effect on Ireland's institutions and policies, providing an analysis in view of Ireland's rejection of the Lisbon Treaty in June 2008. The book demonstrates that, although Europeanisation spurred significant institutional and policy change, domestic forces filtered those consequences while global factors induced further adaptation. By identifying and assessing the adaptational pressures in a range of policy areas, the book establishes that, in tandem with the European dimension, domestic features and global developments were key determinants of change and harbingers of new patterns of governance. In challenging the usually unquestioning acceptance of the EU's dominant role in Ireland's transformation, the study adds conceptually and empirically to the literature on Europeanisation. The review of change in discourse, policy paradigms and procedures is complemented by an exploration of change in the economy, regional development, agricultural and rural policy, environmental policy and foreign policy. This analysis provides clear evidence of the uneven impact of Europeanisation, and the salience of domestic and global mediating factors.

Theory and framework

and the relationship between the EU and the domestic level of politics, this analysis applies Europeanisation as an analytical framework for examining the impacts of European integration on conflict resolution. To the extent that EU governance, understood as a process of institution- and capacity building, provision of policy tools, and legitimation of collective understandings of peaceful coexistence

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
Analytical challenges

9780719055157_4_002.qxd 20/3/09 12:06 PM Page 20 2 The Europeanisation of UK central government: analytical challenges Introduction This chapter is designed to provide an analytical basis for our study of how British central government has come to terms with European integration. It rests on two elements which are examined in the chapter: Europeanisation and new institutionalism. Our initial concern is to locate the study in the context of the Europeanisation literature. In doing so, we place the adaptation to the EU of the UK generally, and of Whitehall

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
The private life of politics

Turkey’s Europeanisation saga, which began in 1959 and climaxed in 2005 with the opening of membership negotiations with the European Union (EU), presents a unique opportunity to understand how interstate actors negotiate their interests; what ‘common interests’ look like from their historically and culturally contingent perspectives; and what happens when actors work for their private, professional, public, personal or institutional interests, even when those interests may go against their mandate. Honing in on the role of diplomats and lobbyists during negotiations for Turkey’s contentious EU membership bid, this book presents intricate, backstage conflicts of power and interests and negotiations of compromises, which drove this candidate country both closer to and farther from the EU. The reader will find in the book the everyday actors and agents of Turkish Europeanisation and learn what their work entails, which interests they represent and how they do what they do. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in Brussels, the book argues that public, private and corporate actors, voicing economic, political and bureaucratic interests from all corners of Europe, sought access to markets and polities through the Turkish bid instead of pursuing their mandate of facilitating Turkey’s EU accession. Although limited progress was achieved in Turkey’s actual EU integration, diplomats and lobbyists from both sides of the negotiating table contradictorily affirmed their expertise as effective negotiators, seeking more status and power. This is the first book-length account of the EU–Turkey power-interest negotiations in situ, from the perspective of its long-term actors and agents.

Regional integration and conflicts in Europe from the 1950s to the twenty-first century

This book is about the European Union's role in conflict resolution and reconciliation in Europe. Ever since it was implemented as a political project of the post-World War II reality in Western Europe, European integration has been credited with performing conflict-resolution functions. The EU allegedly transformed the long-standing adversarial relationship between France and Germany into a strategic partnership. Conflict in Western Europe became obsolete. The end of the Cold War further reinforced its role as a regional peace project. While these evolutionary dynamics are uncontested, the deeper meaning of the process, its transformative power, is still to be elucidated. How does European integration restore peace when its equilibrium is broken and conflict or the legacies of enmity persist? This is a question that needs consideration. This book sets out to do exactly that. It explores the peace and conflict-resolution role of European integration by testing its somewhat vague, albeit well-established, macro-political rationale of a peace project in the practical settings of conflicts. Its central argument is that the evolution of the policy mix, resources, framing influences and political opportunities through which European integration affects conflicts and processes of conflict resolution demonstrates a historical trend through which the EU has become an indispensable factor of conflict resolution. The book begins with the pooling together of policy-making at the European level for the management of particular sectors (early integration in the European Coal and Steel Community) through the functioning of core EU policies (Northern Ireland).

The case of Ukraine

5 Nadiia Bureiko and Teodor Lucian Moga ‘Bounded Europeanisation’: the case of Ukraine Since the proclamation of its independence, Ukraine has vacillated between the two competing centres of power gravitating around post-Soviet Eastern Europe: the Euro-Atlantic community and Russia. Both regional actors have developed political initiatives and cooperation frameworks meant to attract countries from their shared neighbourhood, perhaps the most contested of which was Ukraine. Since 2004, which saw the launch of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), the

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood

4 Tatiana Romanova Europeanisation and Russia The process of Europeanisation is a familiar theme in Russia. It has long been a substantial component of Russian political and economic life. However, current Europeanisation – or rather EU-isation (Wallace, 2000) – is drastically different from past experience and, therefore, presents a challenge for Russia. This chapter first summarises Russian literature on Europeanisation/EUisation. It then turns to the past Europeanisation of Russia and contrasts it to the present processes of EU-isation. A distinction is

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood

alignment was still the same as in 1979, in 1988 it had acquired the ‘1990s’ features. Indeed, the high point of the Europeanisation of Scottish self-government was the 1987–92 Parliament, which was also, not by coincidence, the period in which the process of European integration was perceived as taking a giant leap forward and public support for European integration reached a peak across Europe. Even though the peculiar conditions of that period later changed or disappeared, the re-shaping of perceptions, attitudes and strategies remained largely unchanged until 1997

in Between two Unions