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A necessary context
Arthur Aughey

2981 The politics 23/1/07 10:01 Page 163 9 Europe: a necessary context In his collection of cartoons Round the Bend (1948), the Canadian Russell Brockbank included in one of his drawings a newspaper placard with the headline ‘Fog in Channel – Continent Isolated’. Of course, this was a joke but it would not have been funny if it had not struck a chord, confirming Alan Bennett’s view that English humour is joking but not joking, serious but not serious. It was a ‘chipper’ attitude, recognisable, perhaps even considered indulgently, but also thought to be

in The politics of Englishness
European Union re-imagined

Dominant visions have tended towards imagining Europe as an object - an entity of one sort or another. This book explores the different spaces of Europe/European Union (EU). The first part of the book presents research critically examining actor practices within familiar spaces of action - the European Parliament and the European Commission. It makes the case for the salience of research which distinguishes between spaces of 'frontstage' and 'backstage' politics and shows the interactions between the two. One cannot understand how EU gender mainstreaming policy really works unless one engages with the processes and actors involved. The second part presents research showing how, through their political work, a range of individuals and groups have sought to reconcile Europe with social representations of their industry or their nation to bring about change. It presents a case study of impact assessment of flatfish stocks in the North Sea, and contributes to the cross-fertilisation of Science and Technology Studies with a political sociology of the EU. The book shows how actors are pursuing regional interests, and the work they do in referencing Europe promotes agendas in the 'home' contexts of Scotland and canton Zurich. The final part of the book explores practices of EU government which either have been under-explored hitherto or are newly emerging. These are the knowledge work of a European consultant; measurement work to define and create a European education policy space; collective private action to give social meaning to sustainable Europe.

Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

2 Europe’s 1950s: reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression If … the European Defence Community should not become effective; if France and Germany remain apart … That would compel an agonising reappraisal of basic United States policy. (John Foster Dulles)1 Summary Reconstruction in Western Europe, completed by the early 1950s, led to unbounded optimism about future economic growth and to a strong desire for closer integration. Following the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 among ten West European countries, six went further in

in Destination Europe
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Territorial party strategies in a multi-level system
Series: Devolution
Author: Eve Hepburn

This book explores how regional political parties use Europe to advance their territorial projects in times of rapid state restructuring. It examines the ways in which decentralisation and supranational integration have encouraged regional parties to pursue their strategies across multiple territorial levels. The book constitutes the first attempt to unravel the complexities of how nationalist and statewide parties manoeuvre around the twin issues of European integration and decentralisation, and exploit the shifting linkages within multi-level political systems. In a detailed comparative examination of three cases—Scotland, Bavaria and Sardinia—over a thirty-year period, it explores how integration has altered the nature of territorial party competition and identifies the limits of Europe for territorial projects. In addressing these issues, this work moves beyond present scholarship on multi-level governance to explain the diversity of regional responses to Europe. It provides insights and empirical research on the conduct of territorial party politics, and a model of territorial mobilisation in Europe.

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The left and European integration after the crisis
Michael Holmes and Knut Roder

2008 led to a sovereign debt crisis after governments intervened to try to prop up their banking systems. This in turn contributed to the very specific Eurozone crisis that developed due to the constraints of EMU, and these three financial and economic factors in turn caused a widespread social and political crisis. The second overarching crisis is that of European integration. One analysis identified at least 13 different areas where the EU integration process has been challenged by ‘separate though related crises’ that are ‘multi-faceted in

in The European left and the financial crisis
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Making sense of Europe through data and statistics
Sotiria Grek and Martin Lawn

6 Measuring Europe: making sense of Europe through data and statistics Sotiria Grek and Martin Lawn Introduction This chapter focuses on education policy in Europe and shows its significant, yet largely disregarded, role in the making of the European Union (EU). Although education can be seen as a cornerstone for building a common European identity and collective demos, it has never been an EU ‘competency’. On the contrary, that Member States should retain formal control over education politics has been a consistent political choice. This historical reality has

in Governing Europe’s spaces
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Usages of Europe in national identity projects
Jenny Ozga and Farah Dubois-Shaik

4 Referencing Europe: usages of Europe in national identity projects Jenny Ozga and Farah Dubois-Shaik Introduction In this chapter, we work with the idea developed in the Introduction to this volume of conceptualising Europe organically, as a simultaneously real and imagined space of action that comes into being through the actions of groups of actors whose interests are socially constructed (Carter et al., 2015). In this instance, the actors in question are pursuing regional interests, and the work they do in referencing Europe promotes agendas in the ‘home

in Governing Europe’s spaces
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Aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews
Amikam Nachmani

2 European realities: aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews Who are the Muslims in Europe? Who are the migrants in the various European countries? For example, 10 per cent of the 16.3 million Dutch population are immigrants; 886,000 of them, 5.5 per cent, are Muslims, mainly Moroccans and Turks; 60 per cent are under 35, compared to 40 per cent in the general Dutch population. Many of the allochtonen (immigrants) live in ‘the Muslim ghettos’ that nowadays surround the Dutch urban centres. So much of what tolerant Dutch society

in Haunted presents
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Europeanisation and accession
Simon Bulmer and Martin Burch

9780719055157_4_004.qxd 20/3/09 12:06 PM Page 65 4 Approaching Europe: Europeanisation and accession Introduction In this chapter we examine adaptation in British central government in the period up to and including accession. We utilise the analytical toolkits of Europeanisation and historical institutionalism as set out in Chapter 2 to focus our empirical detail. Was accession in 1973 the critical juncture in adapting to Europe? That at least would seem to be an initial presumption, since Chapter 3 revealed that European integration had already developed a

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
Open Access (free)
The management of migration between care and control
Pierluigi Musarò

Tens of thousands of migrants and refugees stranded in camps in Greece and in Calais, shipwrecks and deaths in the Mediterranean, fences and walls across the Balkans, hotspots along the European Union (EU) southern borders, increasing controls within the Schengen space, military-humanitarian naval operations, the EU–Turkey migrant deal, NGOs and activists denouncing the

in Global humanitarianism and media culture