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Europeanisation and its twenty-first-century contradictions

The European Union (EU) is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise of anti-EU populism and 'Brexit'. In its immediate neighbourhood it is confronted by a range of challenges and threats. This book explores the origins of the term 'Europeanisation' and the way in which its contemporary iteration-EU-isation-has become associated with the normative power of the EU. The concept of European identity is discussed, with an indication that there are different levels of identity of which a European consciousness can be just one. An overview of different mechanisms the EU uses to promote EU-isation in the neighbourhood and a discussion on the limits of conditionality when membership is not on offer is also included. The book discusses these themes in more detail. It powerfully states the salience of Russia in establishing an alternative geopolitical pole to the EU. The presence of Russia as the Eurasian Economic Union appears to play the role of being a way of preserving traditional conservative values in contrast to the uncomfortable challenges of EU-isation. The Balkans' and Turkey's reception of EU-isation is not affected by the experience of being in-betweeners. The book examines the issue of EU-isation and the relationship between values (norms), interests and identity based on various sectors/themes which cut across different neighbours and are core elements in their relations with the EU.

Bailout politics in Eurozone countries

Since 2010, five Eurozone governments in economic difficulty have received assistance from international lenders on condition that certain policies specified in the Memoranda of Understanding were implemented. How did negotiations take place in this context? What room for manoeuvre did the governments of these countries have? After conditionality, to what extent were governments willing and able to roll back changes imposed on them by the international lenders? Do we find variation across governments, and, if so, why?

This book addresses these questions. It explores the constraints on national executives in the five bailed out countries of the Eurozone during and beyond the crisis (2008–2019).

The book’s principal idea is that, despite international market pressure and creditors’ conditionality, governments had some room for manoeuvre during a bailout and were able to advocate, resist, shape or roll back some of the policies demanded by external actors. Under certain circumstances, domestic actors were also able to exploit the constraint of conditionality to their own advantage. The book additionally shows that after a bailout programme governments could use their discretion to reverse measures in order to attain the greatest benefits at a lower cost. It finally explores the determinants of bargaining leverage – and stresses the importance of credibility.

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Catherine Moury, Stella Ladi, Daniel Cardoso, and Angie Gago

Conclusions The analysis of Spanish governments’ leverage vis-à-vis international lenders during the Eurozone crisis offers us empirical support for our arguments. This chapter shows that despite extreme pressure from the financial markets and European institutions, Spanish executives were not powerless. They were able to negotiate with external actors (e.g. fiscal deficit with the European Commission) and avoid the implementation of reforms (e.g. the pension sustainability factor). In line with our theoretical proposal, we demonstrate that the crisis

in Capitalising on constraint
‘Europeanisation’ or bilateral preferences?
Martin Dangerfield

bilateral instruments for trade and economic cooperation with Russia. The fourth section discusses the possible relevance of new ‘strategic’ visions for economic development that emerged after the Eurozone crisis and the final section draws attention to the important influence of alternative internal perspectives on economic and business relations on Russia. The conclusions sum up what the fine detail examination of economic relations tell us about the interplay of national/bilateral and European/multilateral approaches towards this key Eastern neighbour and also whether

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
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Catherine Moury, Stella Ladi, Daniel Cardoso, and Angie Gago

Introduction Our last case study, Cyprus, is particularly interesting insofar as it is the only one where there was a bail-in rather than a bailout during the Eurozone crisis. By the time Cyprus entered the Adjustment Programme, the rescue mechanisms had already been well institutionalised. In fact, it was 2013 when Cyprus signed the Economic Adjustment Programme as a result of delays on the part of both Cyprus and the European partners. Cyprus successfully exited the programme three years later in March 2016. The Cypriot

in Capitalising on constraint
Costas Simitis

July 2012. 3 See article of the European Union Treaty of 12 December 2007. 4 See N. Karamouzis, ‘The Eurozone crisis, causes and prospects’, Kathimerini, 27 November 2011, p. 7. The German Sachverständigenrat (Council of Economic Experts) has reviewed the causes of the crisis from the German point of view. See ‘Euroraum in der Krise’, in Jahresgutachten 2011–2012, Sachverständigenrat, 2012. Greece.indb 338 3/13/2014 1:56:54 PM A new European policy is necessary 339  5 IHT, 25–26 August 2012, p. 12.   6 See P. Lamy, ‘Setting up and governing the euro’, Notre

in The European debt crisis
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek

veneer of the ‘European spirit.’ While the actual threat to European security posed by these conflicts is minor, the façade of the classic narrative of integration has already started to crack as a result. The differing cognitive, motivational, and justificatory resources that emerge from treating 1989 as a rupture instead of (or in addition to) 1945 has thus ‘extended the EU’s memory agenda and posed a number of new challenges to the Union.’ 7 The onset of the Eurozone crisis in 2010 caused these cracks to widen into broader fissures that threaten the structural

in Memory and the future of Europe
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Au milieu
Thomas Prosser

series of statements at key points in the Eurozone crisis, French unions advocated Keynesian solutions which were similar to those outlined in A Marshall Plan for Europe (see chapter 4 ). Consistent with their radical orientation, CGT and FO adopted especially vociferous stances. Despite their milder tone, moderate unions such as CFDT were nonetheless unwavering in opposition. The EU Semester system, because of its association with austerity and labour market deregulation, was also viewed warily. This opposition was expressed directly to

in European labour movements in crisis
The Irish left and the crisis
Michael Holmes

Introduction The Republic of Ireland was one of the countries worst hit by the global financial crisis and the ensuing Eurozone crisis. It was the first EU country to go into recession and the first to require a bailout, it was effectively under the control of the troika and endured austerity measures for several years. Even though the country officially emerged from bailout conditions at the end of 2013, and recorded the highest rate of growth among EU member states in subsequent years, the social costs still weighed

in The European left and the financial crisis
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Costas Simitis

The chapter discusses the intensification of the Eurozone crisis in the aftermath of the Greek election of May 2012, particularly as concerns over the health of the Spanish economy put pressure on the value of the Euro. The ECB warned that the very design of EMU was no longer sustainable, but the building of consensus over the reform of the Eurozone’s architecture proved elusive.

in The European debt crisis