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Neville Mogford

chapter. Three major riddle collections—or four, if we count the Exeter Book riddles—take great delight in describing various astronomical objects related to time-reckoning and chronometry, such as the moon, stars, and planets: the Enigmata of Aldhelm and Eusebius, and the Bern riddles. All three were written between the beginning of the seventh century and the first half of the eighth, a period in which Irish-authored computistica proliferated widely across early medieval England and the Frankish and Lombard kingdoms. The Bern collection includes sixty

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
Words, ideas, interactions

Riddles at work is the first volume to bring together multiple scholarly voices to explore the vibrant, poetic riddle tradition of early medieval England and its neighbours. The chapters in this book present a wide range of traditional and experimental methodologies. They treat the riddles both as individual poems and as parts of a tradition, but, most importantly, they address Latin and Old English riddles side-by-side, bringing together texts that originally developed in conversation with each other but have often been separated in scholarship. The ‘General Introduction’ situates this book in its scholarly context. Part I, ‘Words’, presents philological approaches to early medieval riddles—interpretations rooted in close readings of texts—for riddles work by making readers question what words really mean. While reading carefully may lead to elegant solutions, however, such solutions are not the end of the riddling game. Part II, ‘Ideas’, thus explores how riddles work to make readers think anew about objects, relationships, and experiences, using literary theory to facilitate new approaches. Part III, ‘Interactions’, explores how riddles work through connections with other fields, languages, times, and places. Together, the sixteen chapters reveal that there is no single, right way to read these texts but many productive paths—some explored here, some awaiting future work.

Matthew Kempshall

returning services, respect and acts of friendship, see page 286. 64  Josephus, Antiquitates, pref.1, p. 27. 65  De Bello Iudaico, pref.5, p. 22, VI.3.3, p. 341, VI.5.3, p. 349. The passage from De Bello Iudaico, VI.3.3, p. 341, is quoted by Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, trans. G.A. Williamson (Harmondsworth, 1965), III.6, p. 115, III.10.9–11, p. 123. 66  De Bello Iudaico, pref.2, p. 21. 67  De Bello Iudaico, V.2.5, p. 283. 68  De Bello Iudaico, pref.4–5, pp. 22–3. 69  De Bello Iudaico, pref.12, p. 25. 70  De Bello Iudaico, pref.2, p. 21, IV.4.3, p. 243. 52

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Tracing an insular riddle topos on both sides of the English Channel
Mercedes Salvador-Bello

It is well known that riddling was particularly conspicuous as a literary genre in the British Isles. Indeed, riddles were much appreciated in monastic circles because their compact format conveniently favoured the teaching of Latin vocabulary, rhetoric, syntax, and metrics. Dating from about 686, Aldhelm’s Enigmata constitute the earliest riddle collection produced in England that has come down to us. Following in Aldhelm’s steps, Tatwine and Eusebius, both contemporary with Bede, took up the composition of a collection each. 2 In turn, an anonymous author

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
C. E. Beneš

this age encompassed 2,242 years according to the calculation of Bede and Eusebius. The second age ran from Noah to Abraham; this lasted 942 years according to the calculation of Bede and Eusebius. The third age lasted from Abraham to David; this age had 940 years, and in it lived Moses. The fourth age lasted from David up to the exile of the Jewish people into Babylon; this age had 485 years. The fifth age was from the Babylonian exile up to the

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Steve Sohmer

at us is ‘the equinoctial of Queubus ’, which by now should not be difficult to recognize as Andrew’s drunken slurring of ‘the Equinoctial Rule of Eusebius’, the decree issued by the Nicaean Council. 14 But how did Eusebius get mixed up with Pigrogromitus and the Vapians ? To parse Pigrogromitus we must first correct a typesetter’s error. Typographical mistakes were

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
C. E. Beneš

. 14 Mark 16.15. 15 Rufinus/Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica 3.1–2. 16 Eusebius/Jerome, Chronica 32; also Rufinus/Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica 2

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
Steve Sohmer

better. 19 But the keen-eyed Barbara Everett recognized that ‘the “sub-title” [ or What You Will ] is really no sub-title, but a generic, perhaps primary, and certainly important part of the title.’ 20 In fact, the answer to this riddle is surprisingly simple and as calendrical as play’s title. The Equinoctial Rule of Eusebius

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
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Material symbolism in the Old English Martyrology and Blickling Homily 11
Johanna Kramer

liturgical, pilgrimage, and other cult practices emerge. 15 The first evidence for a developing cult of the Ascension appears in the work of Church historian Eusebius ( c. 260–339). He reports in his Vita Constantini that the first basilica in memory of Christ’s ascent, known as the Eleona, was erected by Empress Helena on the side of the Mount of Olives near or over a cave in which Christ was said to have given his final instructions to the disciples. 16 Interestingly, Eusebius also states that Helena ‘accorded suitable adoration to the footsteps of the Saviour

in Between earth and heaven