Such tactics as → productive withdrawals or establishing → patainstitutions are examples of what Paulo Virno theorises under the term ‘exodus’, usually held to mean a kind of mass departure. In contrast to idle escapism, exodus is a productive act of contestation, which destroys the existing structures in order to free up social energy. For Virno such exodus is:
the polar opposite of the desperate cry ‘there is nothing to lose but one's own chains’: on the contrary, exit
internal displacement of people, and to identify the strategies used to regulate and depoliticise the huge exodus of people. To this end, I think this perspective presents a convenient way to view the legitimation of the ineffectiveness of some reparation measures for the displaced population as a product of a governmental rationality based on the emotional care of the victims. Based on secondary data, this paper offers an analytical view of how humanitarianism in Colombia has become dominant in the governance of displaced people, especially in the promotion of
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
public relations experts contributed to campaigning. It also commissioned G. H. Mewes, a Danish filmmaker and former photographic correspondent for the Daily Mirror in Russia, to make the film Famine: A Glimpse of the Misery in the Province of Saratov . 2 Mewes was sent there in winter 1921 and recorded several sequences showing the extreme misery in Saratov, with abandoned shanty towns and the exodus on wagons pulled by camels, starving children in rags, distribution of food, and dead corpses in the Buzuluk cemetery. Although the most notorious SCF film, it was
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
time the ARC arrived in France (in 1916) during the period of American neutrality (1914–17), humanitarian aid agencies applied the term to practically all people displaced within and beyond national frontiers.
During World War I, contemporary representations of this new category of people included sympathetic discourse that focused on tragedies experienced by refugees, catastrophes they left behind, and efforts they undertook to leave. Refugees were commonly placed in biblical contexts with their movements being equated with exodus ( Gatrell, 2014 ). But refugees
Borrowed objects and the art of poetry examines seven Exeter riddles, three Anglo-Saxon biblical poems (Exodus, Andreas, Judith), and Beowulf to uncover the poetics of spolia, an imaginative use of fictional recycled artefacts to create sites of metatextual reflection. Old English poetry famously – and for a corpus rather interested in the enigmatic and the oblique, appropriately – lacks an explicit ars poetica. This book argues that attention to particularly charged moments within texts – especially within texts concerned with translation, transformation, and the layering of various pasts – gives us a previously unrecognised means for theorising Anglo-Saxon poetic creativity. Borrowed objects and the art of poetry works at the intersections of recent interest in materiality and poetics, balancing insights of thing theory, and related approaches with close readings of specific passages from Old English texts.
The story of the Flood, inherited by the Anglo-Saxons during their conversion to Christianity, was transformed by them into a vital myth through which they interpreted the whole of history and their place in it. The dual character of the myth, with the opposition between threatened destruction and hope of renewal, presented commentators with a potent historical metaphor, which they exploited in their own changing historical circumstance. This book explores the use of this metaphor in the writings of the Anglo-Saxons. It is the integration of a well-known biblical story into the historical and cultural self-definition of a group of people converted to Christianity and its worldview. The Flood in the Bible is clearly a punishment, though the sin is not so well defined. This forms part of a historical pattern of sin and punishment extending back to Eden, and progressed to the sin and exile of Cain. For Bede the historian, the Flood was a key event in the earlier history of the world; for Bede the theologian, the Flood was an event replete with mystical significance. In Exodus and Andreas all the poems share an interest in two themes, which emerge from the biblical story of the Flood and its theological interpretation: covenant and apocalypse. Noah is the 'one father' not only of Israel, but of the whole human race, and his introduction widens the concept of 'inheritance' in the Exodus. The book concludes with a detailed discussion of the significance of the Flood myth in Beowulf.
Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.
’s Noah and Ridley Scott’s Exodus: Gods and Kings . The former I want to discuss as mythic, but the latter to use as a counterargument, a kind of anti-mythic film.
‘Symbols’ is a clunky word, too quickly given over to generalised universals and reductive reasoning; it is the foundation for both Jung’s and Campbell’s theories on myth. But it is the filmmaker’s imbuing of his/her imagery with meaning that creates symbols. Recognition, and then analysis thereafter, of the symbols in a film is the first step in understanding its potential mythic
The Flood theme is exploited and
developed across a range of Old English Christian verse, but it is given
special prominence in three longer narrative poems. Two of these,
Genesis A and Exodus , draw on the Bible as their
principal source; the third, Andreas , is an apocryphal account of
events in the life of the apostle Andrew. The three poems differ in