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Mark B. Brown

9 Expertise Mark B. Brown The complex relations among publicity, legitimacy and expertise have long been central to modern science. From the 1660s onward, Robert Boyle and the natural philosophers at the Royal Society legitimated their work in part by portraying it as a distinctly public form of knowledge production. Employing a rhetoric of transparency, they wrote meticulous lab reports in a modest style and performed their experiments in public. They produced expert knowledge both in public and through the public. But their public was largely restricted to

in Science and the politics of openness
Joris Vandendriessche

5 Expertise and advice In 1864, an extraordinary meeting was organized by the Medical Society of Ghent. Its only agenda item was the latest study on the living conditions of Ghent’s workers population by Adolphe Burggraeve. In a plenary speech, Burggraeve seized the opportunity to reflect upon the social role of medicine. ‘It does not suffice for the physician,’ so he addressed his colleagues, ‘to engage in the medical sciences to keep abreast of their progress and of the discoveries that are of interest to him; it is necessary, in addition, to put these

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
State building in Cromwellian Ireland
Jennifer Wells

Connecting centre and locality Chapter 9 Local expertise in hostile territory: state building in Cromwellian Ireland Jennifer Wells I n March 1655, eight men surveyed a field in Timolin, County Kildare, Ireland, not far from the Wicklow border. They worked on behalf of William Petty, an Oxford-based anatomist who became physician-general of Parliament’s forces in Ireland and later surveyor-general of the country. Petty’s ambition, and that of the parliamentarian government employing him, was to measure and record all lands forfeited by Irish Catholics

in Connecting centre and locality
British military nursing in the Crimean War
Carol Helmstadter

1 Class, gender and professional expertise: British military nursing in the Crimean War Carol Helmstadter Modern historians have suggested that nursing in the Crimean War was largely a form of housekeeping and that the only major contributions made by the female nurses whom the government sent to the East were the introduction of night nursing and small personal attentions to the soldiers.1 Certainly, the roots of hospital nursing did lie in domestic service but did military nursing in the 1850s really largely consist of household duties? War and other

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Editors: Hannah Knox and Dawn Nafus

Data is not just the stuff of social scientific method; it is the stuff of everyday life. The presence of digital data in an ever widening range of human relationships profoundly unsettles notions of expertise for both ethnographers and data scientists alike. This collection situates digital data in broader knowledge-production practices. It asks about the kinds of social worlds that data scientists are creating as the profession coalesces, and looks at the contemporary possibilities available to both ethnographers and their participants for knowing, formatting and intervening in the world. It shows what digital data is doing to the empirical methods that sustain claims to expertise, with a particular focus on implications for ethnography.

The contributors offer empirically grounded accounts of the cultures, infrastructures and epistemologies of data production, analysis and use. They examine the professionalisation of data science in a variety of national and transnational contexts. They look closely at specific data practices like archiving of environmental data, or claims-making about how software is produced. They also offer a glimpse into the new methodological and pedagogical possibilities for teaching and doing ethnography in a data-saturated world.

Keith Krause

In discussions of conflict, war and political violence, dead bodies count. Although the politics and practices associated with the collection of violent-death data are seldom subject to critical examination, they are crucial to how scholars and practitioners think about how and why conflict and violence erupt. Knowledge about conflict deaths – the who, what, where, when, why and how – is a form of expertise, created, disseminated and used by different agents. This article highlights the ways in which body counts are deployed as social facts and forms of knowledge that are used to shape and influence policies and practices associated with armed conflict. It traces the way in which conflict-death data emerged, and then examines critically some of the practices and assumptions of data collection to shed light on how claims to expertise are enacted and on how the public arena connects (or not) with scholarly conflict expertise.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Claudia Merli and Trudi Buck

This article considers the contexts and processes of forensic identification in 2004 post-tsunami Thailand as examples of identity politics. The presence of international forensic teams as carriers of diverse technical expertise overlapped with bureaucratic procedures put in place by the Thai government. The negotiation of unified forensic protocols and the production of estimates of identified nationals straddle biopolitics and thanatocracy. The immense identification task testified on the one hand to an effort to bring individual bodies back to mourning families and national soils, and on the other hand to determining collective ethnic and national bodies, making sense out of an inexorable and disordered dissolution of corporeal as well as political boundaries. Individual and national identities were the subject of competing efforts to bring order to,the chaos, reaffirming the cogency of the body politic by mapping national boundaries abroad. The overwhelming forensic effort required by the exceptional circumstances also brought forward the socio-economic and ethnic disparities of the victims, whose post-mortem treatment and identification traced an indelible divide between us and them.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Lessons Learned from an Intervention by Médecins Sans Frontières
Maria Ximena Di Lollo, Elena Estrada Cocina, Francisco De Bartolome Gisbert, Raquel González Juarez, and Ana Garcia Mingo

staff workload and different levels of education and expertise, conducted training on IPC measures and assisted with the design of contingency plans and evaluation of facilities. MSF also donated personal protective equipment (PPE), and when supplies were unavailable, supported care home staff to develop alternative solutions. Advocacy. Throughout the intervention, MSF was lobbying the highest levels of authorities and wrote numerous letters, reports

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

counting practices form an increasingly larger part of everyone’s workload, it also privileges certain types of expertise over others. Since the 1990s, there has been a shift from experience-based opinion within the humanitarian sector towards quantitative experts who practice auditing, deploy accountancy and conduct numerical-based research ( Barnett, 2013 ; Beerli and Weissman, 2016 ). The dominance of these quantitative experts has been demonstrated in the work that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

about the political will, operational implementation and technical capabilities of humanitarians as about the perpetuation of colonial power relations in seemingly benevolent activities. Decoloniality asks: where do we start the story? Who has the microphone and who usually doesn’t? What do we consider expertise? What are the implications of Eurocentric bias in knowledge production? Do our practices and knowledge systems contribute to the struggle against colonial power relations? As we reflect on the potential end of liberal order

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs