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Discourse, policies, identity

This book is about the language of the European Union’s response to the threat of terrorism: the ‘fight against terrorism’. Since its re-emergence in the wake of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the ‘fight against terrorism’ has come to represent a priority area of action for the European Union (EU). Drawing on interpretive approaches to International Relations, the author outlines a discourse theory of identity and counter-terrorism policy in order to explore the ways in which the EU’s counter-terrorism discourse has been constructed and the ways in which it functions. Importantly, the author shows how the ‘fight against terrorism’ structures the EU response to terrorism through the prism of identity, drawing our attention to the various ‘others’ that have come to form the target of EU counter-terrorism policy. Through an extensive analysis of the wider societal impact of the EU’s ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse, the author reveals the various ways in which EU counter-terrorism policy is contributing to the ‘securitisation’ of social and political life within Europe.

Analytical techniques
Christopher Baker-Beall

of terrorism and the language that constructs terrorism as a threat are understood to be intimately linked. 30 The European Union’s fight against terrorism This has implications for the analysis of EU counter-terrorism policy conducted in this book in the sense that, at the EU level, counter-terrorism policies are legitimised as in the ‘European’ interest through reference to identities. Yet, simultaneously, identities are produced and reproduced through the formulation of counter-terrorism policies. As Lene Hansen explains: ‘Policies require identities, but

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
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The ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse and the EU’s emerging role as a holistic security actor
Christopher Baker-Beall

Conclusion: the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse and the EU’s emerging role as a holistic security actor Introduction The reason that I undertook this study was to make the argument that an in-depth analysis of the language of European Union (EU) counter-terrorism policy, the ‘fight against terrorism’, is essential if we are to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the processes through which security practices at the European level are made possible. In doing so I have sought to draw attention to the important role that the concept of identity plays in

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
A genealogy
Christopher Baker-Beall

Italian terrorist organisation, the vice president of the European Parliament, Carlo Meintz, argued that ‘from now on, no one is safe from the fury of terrorism’. He went on to suggest that the only way to defeat terrorism would be to ‘develop closer links across our national frontiers’, ‘to create a European judicial area’ and to organise a ‘fight against terrorism’, thereby drawing a clear link between the threat of terrorism and the policy response needed to combat it.2 Nevertheless, there is a conundrum at the heart of this perception of terrorism, which is as

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
A ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat to the European Union
Christopher Baker-Beall

3 Constructing the ‘terrorist’ other: a ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat to the European Union Introduction This chapter builds on the genealogy of the European Union’s (EU) terrorism as threat discourse that was conducted in Chapter 2, attempting to extend our understanding of the way in which the ‘fight against terrorism’ has been constructed. It does this by analysing four of the discourse strands in a detailed and thematic manner. This is done for four reasons. First, to explore how the four discourse strands contribute to a specific EU understanding of the threat

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
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The language of the European Union’s ‘fight against terrorism’
Christopher Baker-Beall

Introduction: the language of the European Union’s ‘fight against terrorism’ Perhaps even more insidious than the threat to our lives, is the threat that terrorism poses to the very nature of our societies. Terrorism can strike anywhere, anytime, anyone. It is frightening in its unpredictability and unsettling by its random nature … For all of us, the fight against international terrorism is a growth area. And because terrorism is a global phenomenon, we need a global response. (Javier Solana, 2005)1 I would say that the threat has changed a lot not only since

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Globalisation, securitisation and control
Christopher Baker-Beall

4 Constructing the ‘migrant’ other: globalisation, securitisation and control Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that constructs the ‘openness’ of European Union (EU) society as an environment that terrorists seek to take advantage of, demonstrating how issues regarding migration and border control have come to occupy a key dimension of the EU counter-terrorism response. In the period before the events of 11 September 2001, migration was an important subject on the agenda of the EU in relation to the

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’
Christopher Baker-Beall

5 Constructing the ‘Muslim’ other: preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’ Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that connects the threat of terrorism to ‘violent religious extremism’. The chapter focuses specifically on an EU belief that preventing terrorism is best achieved through the development of policies designed to combat the process of ‘radicalisation’. The chapter considers the emergence and evolution of the EU’s counter-radicalisation discourse. It shows how the ‘radicalisation

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
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State terrorism, deceptive organisation and proxy
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

the name of national security and the fight against terrorism. The early admitted crude and overtly violent Spanish attempt at illiberal practices intended to shore up a still shaky new liberal State would arguably be eschewed by most liberal States today even if it is not unreasonable to suppose that most if not all intelligence services deploy similar borderline or entirely illegal practices. Covert operations have become a fundamental, arguably banal feature of foreign policy. The use of military force not only against so-called terrorists but

in Counter-terror by proxy
Norms and realities
Karim A.A. Khan and Anna Kotzeva

to exert more influence than the co-operation agreements, ‘which are more to do with the promotion of free-market ideals than of human rights and constitutionalism’. 23 Challenges to human rights protection in the fight against terrorism In the context of EU enlargement, the dominating theme is of candidate states striving towards and

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement