Patricia Emison

Marcantonio Raimondis career is here considered as a record of a distinctively Renaissance hunger for imagery, on the part of the literate as well as the illiterate, a taste that did not demand autograph work and yet was very attentive to the decisions made by artists about which subjects to portray and how to present them. Marcantonios contribution is described less in terms of having made Raphaels work known widely, and more as having made engraving into an established art form: collectible, discussable, debatable. His innovative technique yielded, it is argued, images of deliberately impersonal style, an accomplishment obscured by the ensuing emphasis on maniera.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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Life and work
Editors: Rachel Stone and Charles West

Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims (d. 882) is a crucial figure for all those interested in early medieval European history in general, and Carolingian history in particular. As the powerful Archbishop of Rheims, Hincmar shaped the times in which he lived, advising and admonishing kings, playing a leading role in the Frankish church, and intervening in a range of political and doctrinal disputes. But Hincmar also shaped how those times would later be seen by historians up to the present day, by writing historical accounts such as the Annals of St-Bertin, and by carefully preserving dossiers of material for posterity.

This book puts the archbishop himself centre-stage, bringing together the latest international research across the spectrum of his varied activities, as history-writer, estate administrator, hagiographer, pastorally-engaged bishop, and politically-minded royal advisor. For the first time since Jean Devisse’s magisterial studies in the 1970s, it offers a three-dimensional examination of a controversial figure whose actions and writings in different fields are often studied in isolation, at the cost of a more integrated appreciation. Combining research from recognised experts as well as early-career historians, it will be an essential companion for all those interested in the early medieval Frankish world, and in the history of early medieval Europe more broadly.

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Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock

lowland are a predominant landform, but landscapes vary greatly within this large area. The Fens, for example, in the east-central region, form an area of marshland, partly drained after the period considered here. Northern England offers a wider range of landscapes: while there are lowland areas of glacial deposits and very fertile soils, there are areas of moorland and the uplands are higher (up to 893 m in the Pennine chain). The climate of England is predominantly temperate, although colder in the north. Political geography and political trends Francia and Italy

in Neighbours and strangers
King Athelstan’s sisters and Frankish queenship
Simon MacLean

addresses the fate of some of these women through an analysis of their political identities. In particular, it is concerned with the ways by which they sought to exercise power in kingdoms where they were outsiders. The sequence began in c .919 with the marriage of Eadgifu to the Carolingian king of West Francia, Charles the Straightforward (also known as ‘the Simple’). 3 In the years thereafter

in Frankland
Rachel Stone

this paper I want to make some comparisons between lordship in Francia and England, focusing less on the institution itself than on contemporary depictions of the relationship, in particular in literary sources, and the moral norms associated with it. Although there have been many discussions of the practice of ‘ Herrschaft ’ in the Carolingian world, especially in regional studies, analysis of the ethos

in Frankland
Episcopal authority and the reconciliation of excommunicants in England and Francia c.900–c.1150
Sarah Hamilton

scholars have investigated the law and rituals surrounding the imposition of excommunication, little attention has been paid to the reconciliation rites which marked its end and which are the focus of this essay. 3 Specific services for the reconciliation of excommunicants are first recorded in Francia in the early tenth, and in England only from the early eleventh century. Investigation of the textual

in Frankland
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

The turbulent career of Leudegar, bishop of Autun from c . 662 to 676 is central to the history of later Merovingian Francia. This heroic figure achieved great fame in life, and even greater fame after his death, and the body of writing which has accumulated around him has become an invaluable source for the history of his time. 1 This material was mined as early as the

in Late Merovingian France
Rachel Weil

order to sell books, the claim to have been imprisoned in Newgate licensed the author to write about high-stakes issues that affected the legitimacy of the new regime. Newgate was the place where, allegedly, the Jacobite Jew Francis Francia was tortured to extort information, and where the five men arrested in 1696 on suspicion of involvement in the Assassination Plot still languished without trial. The History of the Press-Yard accordingly offered readers a chapter on ‘the Usage and Sickness of Mr Francia the Jew’ and ‘The History of the Unfortunate Florimel, one of

in Connecting centre and locality
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The Franks and the world of the early middle ages
Editors: Paul Fouracre and David Ganz

This volume of essays in honour of Dame Jinty Nelson celebrates the way in which Jinty has used her profound understanding of Frankish history as a frame for reflecting upon the nature of early medieval culture and society in general. It includes a tabula gratulatoria of those very many others who wish to express their appreciation of Jinty's work and their warm personal gratitude to her. She has remained at King's throughout her entire career. Her early career was combined with young motherhood, a tough experience that has made her strongly supportive of colleagues trying to balance work and family. Although she continued to write about early medieval inauguration rituals, a new departure came with the 1977 paper 'On the limits of the Carolingian Renaissance'. The book discusses what factors determined and informed their particular take on the Frankish world, and how this compares to law-codes and charters. It considers the possibility that land was sometimes taken in early medieval Europe, whether by kings or local lords, for what they claimed was the common good. Whenever only meagre information was available, it was impossible to make sense of the past, that is, to take a prosaic approach to a sense of oblivion. The book explores both the roots of the historical interpretation and the stimuli for change, by considering the long historiographical tradition, attitudes to textual sources, and the changing political environment. The subjects of queens and queenship have figured prominently among Nelson's publications.

Margaret J. McCarthy

Introduction King Louis the Stammerer succeeded Charles the Bald on the throne of West Francia in 877, inheriting both his father’s kingdom and his father’s advisers. Prominent among those advisers was Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, who was the chief architect of Louis’s coronation, composing and conducting the coronation ritual. A common narrative about Hincmar in the 870s is that he was losing favour near the end of Charles the Bald’s reign, 1 but then Louis the Stammerer’s accession provided another

in Hincmar of Rheims