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Humanity and relief in war, Britain 1870–1914

The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.

Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

final say in assessing ‘military necessity’, a key concept naturally covered by humanitarian law. A few years later, the German command used the Geneva Convention to justify their violence in putting down francs-tireurs in the Franco-Prussian War, claiming that France had violated the agreement by using irregular combatants. Shortly thereafter, the nascent humanitarian law was again caught flat-footed during the siege of Paris, in a war where the concept of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

to beg for Emperor Louis Napoleon’s help in saving his colonial investments. We can look at the use by German forces in the 1870 Franco-Prussian war of the Red Cross as a bombing target, or the contrast between The Hague Conventions and the use of poison gas during World War I, or prior to that the creation of a concentration camp system by the British in South Africa. Indeed, we can go back to the famines the British at worst engineered, and at best tolerated, in India, killing millions of people. Or the Germans and the Herero, or the Belgians

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Edward M. Spiers

capabilities in railway management. This would involve not merely reflection upon any lessons from the Franco-Prussian War but also continued experiments with the operational use of railways during expeditionary campaigns in Africa. Commentary on the Franco-Prussian War In a lecture before the RUSI on 12 May 1873, Captain C. E. Luard, RE, reviewed the general application of field railways

in Engines for empire
British relief in the Franco-Prussian War, 1870–71
Rebecca Gill

Relief workers’ accounts from the Franco-Prussian War reveal genuine concern, often at personal cost, to ameliorate the affliction of injured soldiers and of civilians wracked by siege and agricultural disruption. From their inception, the NAS and the FWVRF faced very different challenges: the one had to contend with dispensing aid to moving

in Calculating compassion
Chris Pearson

2 Militarized environments during the ‘terrible year’ (1870–71) In 1871, G. T. Robinson, the Manchester Guardian’s special correspondent, published a book on his experiences of the Franco-Prussian War. He contrasted the beauty of nature with the destruction of war, describing how the wind had tickled the vineyards near St-Quentin and how ‘soon, too soon, this is all to be reduced to an arid, brown and barren waste’. For Robinson, war disrupted the peaceful and productive French countryside. Yet reminders of more serene times remained during the conflict

in Mobilizing nature
Rebecca Gill

A memorial watercolour commemorates Lieut Col Robert Loyd Lindsay’s service during the Franco-Prussian War. 1 Straight-backed, golden-haired and imposing, Loyd Lindsay strides away from a gutted house, his soldierly bearing conferred by long and distinguished service in the British army. At first glance, one would assume that he was on campaign. Closer

in Calculating compassion
Silvia Salvatici

individual associations were independent and many of them had developed a direct relationship with their own governments and were taking totally separate ‘national roads’ to war humanitarianism. The Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) was the first major testing ground for the Red Cross. This war tested different templates and approaches and at the same time started up a new phase in the history of relief for the victims of armed conflicts. Battlefield testing: 1870–1914 And here we are at the Franco-Prussian War. It was here that the societies used

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Family, friendship and trauma, 1868–71
Susan K. Foley

-Kestner, 3 April 1870. 21 Geoffrey Wawro , The Franco-Prussian War: The German Conquest of France, 1870–1871 ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2003 ); Michael Howard , The Franco-Prussian War ( London : Routledge , 2021

in Republican passions
William H. Schneider

light of new research, there are two misleading or neglected features of McKay’s otherwise commendable research that have long been in serious need of correction. First, the coincidence of geographical reform following the Franco-Prussian War has been interpreted by historians of French imperialism to imply that the growth of geographical activity was essentially a nationalistic response to the defeat

in Imperialism and the natural world