Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is one of the most popular novels in western literature. It has been adapted and re-assembled in countless forms, from Hammer Horror films to young-adult books and bandes dessinées. Beginning with the idea of the ‘Frankenstein Complex’, this edited collection provides a series of creative readings that explore the elaborate intertextual networks that make up the novel’s remarkable afterlife. It broadens the scope of research on Frankenstein while deepening our understanding of a text that, 200 years after its original publication, continues to intrigue and terrify us in new and unexpected ways.

An afterword
Richard J. Hand

T HIS COMPREHENSIVE COLLECTION OF chapters demonstrates the thrilling range and diversity of Frankenstein Studies. Mary Shelley dreamed up the story in the Regency era, within a group of writers who together form one of the key crucibles in the history of Romanticism. Infused with classical and literary allusion, her story may be a metaphor for the French or Industrial Revolutions; it may be an exploration of contemporaneous science or the gendered psyche; it may be a deeply personal psychoanalytical narrative. It is all – and yet none – of

in Adapting Frankenstein
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Graphic children’s texts and the twenty-first-century monster
Jessica Straley

F RANKENSTEIN ’ S MONSTER MAY SEEM an unwelcome intruder in the child’s nursery. Indeed, in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818), the monster and the child cannot coexist. Constituted by disinterred corpses, orphaned on his birthday, and unloved even by his creator, Shelley’s monster is a being bereft of childhood; he partakes in none of the revered innocence and divine vision that constituted the Romantic ‘child’ idolised by Shelley’s contemporaries. The horror of the monster’s uncouth physiognomy, as described in Shelley’s novel

in Adapting Frankenstein
Hammer Film Studios’ reinvention of horror cinema
Morgan C. O’Brien

Faced with the task of explaining a particular phenomenon or event […] the historian first recognises that the event under study is not a one-dimensional ‘thing’ but the point of convergence for various lines of historical force. (Allen and Gomery 17) I N 1957, FAMILY - OWNED H AMMER Film Studios released Terence Fisher’s The Curse of Frankenstein , and with one inexpensive genre movie the small British studio

in Adapting Frankenstein
Lissette Lopez Szwydky

M UCH OF THE SIGNIFICANCE of Mel Brooks’s Young Frankenstein (1974) lies in its engagement with Frankenstein ’s adaptation history and early cinema conventions, which it accomplishes through a brilliant mix of parody and homage. The more they are well versed in Frankenstein ’s film history, the more viewers are able to appreciate the jokes in Young Frankenstein that cover a full range of characters, scenes, props, and film techniques, alongside literary, film, and cultural critiques. Audiences familiar

in Adapting Frankenstein
Kate Newell

M ARY S HELLEY ’ S F RANKENSTEIN (1818) occupies a rare position in our cultural memory: most of us ‘know’ it regardless of whether or not we have read it. This circumstance owes much to James Whale’s 1931 film adaptation, which is often credited with establishing the definitive visual lexicon for Frankenstein . 1 Of course, Whale’s is not the first visual adaption of the novel. Prior to 1931, Shelley’s novel was adapted numerous times for the stage – e.g., Richard Brinsley Peake’s Presumption (1823) and

in Adapting Frankenstein
Responsibility and obedience in I, Robot and X-Men: First Class
Matt Lorenz

W HILE FILMS AND TV shows such as Frankenweenie (2012), I, Frankenstein (2014), and Penny Dreadful (2014) adapt, revise, and extend Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) for the screen, with notable differences in mood and message, other films echo and expand on Shelley’s classic tale of creation gone awry in ways that are more indirect and unexpected. In a sense, these indirect adaptations have more freedom to complicate and modernise Shelley’s text, since they transpose her characters and conflicts into fresh contexts with

in Adapting Frankenstein
Adapting Mary Shelley’s monster in superhero comic books
Joe Darowski

‘“T HE ” X-M EN MEET F RANKENSTEIN? ” Perish the thought!’ (Douglas 309). Thus begins a letter found in ‘Mutant Mail-Box’, the official letter column of The X-Men comic book in the 1960s. The letter writer, Scott Douglas, is responding to a story featured in X-Men #40 (1968), titled ‘The Mark of the Monster’. In that issue, the X-Men encounter the notorious Frankenstein Creature. Douglas’s reaction to the tale is mixed. While initially sceptical about an encounter between the X-Men and the Creature, he felt that ‘it was a successful

in Adapting Frankenstein
Mary Shelley’s motivic novel as adjacent adaptation
Kyle William Bishop

S INCE ITS PUBLICATION IN 1818, Mary Shelley’s iconic novel Frankenstein has manifested throughout popular culture in a variety of adaptations across numerous media, making it one of the most adapted literary works in history. 1 Many of these plays, films, novels, comics, and video games – comprising the ‘Frankenstein Network’ of interrelated and interconnected texts – attempt holistic recreations of Shelley’s original material, emphasising the power struggles between Victor Frankenstein and his misunderstood Creature. These full

in Adapting Frankenstein
Maria K. Bachman and Paul C. Peterson

M ARY S HELLEY ’ S F RANKENSTEIN IS one of those rare works of literature that has assumed a life extending well beyond the novel itself. Frankenstein embodies a story that most people know, or think they know. What they do know of the story, however, is more likely drawn from Universal Studios’ 1931 film adaptation, directed by James Whale and starring Boris Karloff as Frankenstein’s iconic bolt-necked ‘monster’. As Christa Albrecht-Crane and Dennis Cutchins note, ‘ Frankenstein … is so well known that a potential adapter

in Adapting Frankenstein