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Ninth-century histories, volume II
Author: Timothy Reuter

This book presents a rough translation of the Annals of Fulda (AF). By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. The AF are the principal narrative source written from a perspective east of the Rhine for the period in which the Carolingian Empire gave way to a number of successor kingdoms, including the one which was to become Germany. AF offer the major narrative account of the east Frankish kingdom from the death of Louis the Pious down to the end of the ninth century. The surviving manuscripts are only an echo of what must once have been a much more extensive transmission, to judge by the use made of AF by a number of later annalists and compilers. The brief description of the manuscript tradition must be amplified by looking at the content of the annals. For the years 714 to 830 the work is undoubtedly a compilation which draws on earlier annals, in particular on the Royal Frankish Annals and the Lorsch Frankish Chronicle, with occasional use of other smaller sets of annals and saints' lives. The account of the origins of AF was heavily criticised by Siegmund Hellmann in a number of articles written some fifteen years after the appearance of Friedrich Kurze's edition in 1891.

Maximilian Diesenberger

a crucial role all over the Frankish empire shortly afterwards. M. de Jong, The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814–840 (Cambridge, 2009), p. 113. I would like to thank Francesco Borri, Andreas Fischer, Marios Costambeys, Giorgia Vocino and Graeme Ward for comments on the text. All errors that remain are of course my own. 2 Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum VI, c. 40, ed. L. Bethmann and G. Waitz, MGH Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI–IX, 12–219, p. 179. 1 The sermon De cupiditate by

in Religious Franks
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Timothy Reuter

The Annals of Fulda and their authorship By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. 1 The earliest annals were probably no more than brief marginal notes on the tables used for calculating the date of Easter, but it was soon discovered that an account of events organised year by year could be not simply an

in The Annals of Fulda
Brigitte Kasten

was to be punished by death, in accordance with the harshness of late Roman penalties for incest. 39 But legal interpretation was needed to determine whether this decree covered stepmothers too, and whether it still applied after the father’s death. 40 Ecclesiastical norms and regulations for controlling them in the Frankish Empire Ecclesiastical marriage legislation, including the establishment of the prohibited degrees, and the prohibition of incest, in conciliar decrees, capitularies and penitentials, has been very thoroughly studied for the Frankish Empire

in Law, laity and solidarities
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock

and more. The use of these terms varies through time, by region and sometimes by scribe. There are marked differences not only between the Anglo-Saxon world and the Frankish Empire but also on a smaller scale between Alemannia and Bavaria, and even between northern and southern Tuscany. However, the duties of these office holders in the Carolingian world often seem comparable and the titles interchangeable, at times even synonymous. This is evident also in the capitularies, in which office holders are listed as centenarii , vicecomites , vicedomini , locopositi

in Neighbours and strangers
The abbé Mably
Rachel Hammersley

the question of geography he even exceeded their proposals. Despite their cosmopolitanism, their practical reform proposals had tended to remain focused on Britain itself. Mably, by contrast, not only applied these ideas to France, but also was able to use his appeal to the gothic past to conceive of a republic that embraced much of Western Europe, along the lines of the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne.32 The moral question It is not only on purely political matters that Mably’s views resemble those of the British commonwealthmen. Like them, he was also deeply

in The English republican tradition and eighteenth-century France
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Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock

, although at the end of his life, in 814, his son Louis was the only survivor and succeeded his father as ruler of the empire. Family conflict erupted in the rebellions of Louis’s three older sons, particularly after the allocation of territory to Charles the Bald, Louis’s six-year-old son by his second wife, Judith, in 829. 13 Following Louis’s death, in 840, the Treaty of Verdun split the Frankish Empire into three major parts: in 843 Charles the Bald was allocated the west, Louis the German the territories east of the Rhine and Lothar a Middle Kingdom; in 855 this

in Neighbours and strangers
Carolingian local correctio and an unknown priests’ exam from the early ninth century
Carine van Rhijn

, by looking at one notable variant in the St Gallen manuscript, we see that there were no fixed answers to the questions that would be acceptable everywhere in the Frankish empire. Thus, we are reminded that local correctio was applied to a world in which religious practices varied widely, and consensus about how things should be done centred on no more than general aspects of ecclesiastical rituals and priestly duties discussed in high-level circles. What mattered was that people were baptised by triple immersion on the right days – whether the priest washed the

in Religious Franks
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Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims
Matthew Bryan Gillis

of the martyrs Crispin and Crispinian who were believed in the ninth century to have suffered their passions – including being thrown into boiling pitch, lard and oil – at nearby Soissons. 50 Gottschalk, as a missionary-turned-Christianiser now persecuted within the Frankish empire for defending divine truths, seems to have viewed himself as much like these ancient martyrs who endured Roman persecution. As Ian Wood has shown, Carolingian hagiographers such as Alcuin and Rimbert emphasised the miraculous in conversions and Gottschalk envisioned this miracle as a

in Hincmar of Rheims
Timothy Reuter

This chapter contains the text of The Annals of Fulda in full, translated and annotated by Timothy Reuter.

in The Annals of Fulda