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Ninth-century histories, volume II
Author: Timothy Reuter

This book presents a rough translation of the Annals of Fulda (AF). By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. The AF are the principal narrative source written from a perspective east of the Rhine for the period in which the Carolingian Empire gave way to a number of successor kingdoms, including the one which was to become Germany. AF offer the major narrative account of the east Frankish kingdom from the death of Louis the Pious down to the end of the ninth century. The surviving manuscripts are only an echo of what must once have been a much more extensive transmission, to judge by the use made of AF by a number of later annalists and compilers. The brief description of the manuscript tradition must be amplified by looking at the content of the annals. For the years 714 to 830 the work is undoubtedly a compilation which draws on earlier annals, in particular on the Royal Frankish Annals and the Lorsch Frankish Chronicle, with occasional use of other smaller sets of annals and saints' lives. The account of the origins of AF was heavily criticised by Siegmund Hellmann in a number of articles written some fifteen years after the appearance of Friedrich Kurze's edition in 1891.

Maximilian Diesenberger

a crucial role all over the Frankish empire shortly afterwards. M. de Jong, The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814–840 (Cambridge, 2009), p. 113. I would like to thank Francesco Borri, Andreas Fischer, Marios Costambeys, Giorgia Vocino and Graeme Ward for comments on the text. All errors that remain are of course my own. 2 Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum VI, c. 40, ed. L. Bethmann and G. Waitz, MGH Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI–IX, 12–219, p. 179. 1 The sermon De cupiditate by

in Religious Franks
Abstract only
Timothy Reuter

The Annals of Fulda and their authorship By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. 1 The earliest annals were probably no more than brief marginal notes on the tables used for calculating the date of Easter, but it was soon discovered that an account of events organised year by year could be not simply an

in The Annals of Fulda
Brigitte Kasten

was to be punished by death, in accordance with the harshness of late Roman penalties for incest. 39 But legal interpretation was needed to determine whether this decree covered stepmothers too, and whether it still applied after the father’s death. 40 Ecclesiastical norms and regulations for controlling them in the Frankish Empire Ecclesiastical marriage legislation, including the establishment of the prohibited degrees, and the prohibition of incest, in conciliar decrees, capitularies and penitentials, has been very thoroughly studied for the Frankish Empire

in Law, laity and solidarities
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

and more. The use of these terms varies through time, by region and sometimes by scribe. There are marked differences not only between the Anglo-Saxon world and the Frankish Empire but also on a smaller scale between Alemannia and Bavaria, and even between northern and southern Tuscany. However, the duties of these office holders in the Carolingian world often seem comparable and the titles interchangeable, at times even synonymous. This is evident also in the capitularies, in which office holders are listed as centenarii , vicecomites , vicedomini , locopositi

in Neighbours and strangers
A guide for students
Stephen Mossman

concerning how far this power extended from central places (i.e. the locations where a regime’s leading members based themselves); and how, in these very large territorial units – far larger than their modern equivalents and in some cases empires in their own right – the provinces were governed in any meaningful sense, and how the periphery related to the centre. This is an important theme for Janet Nelson in the next chapter, on the ‘Carolingian moment’, which explores the Frankish empire built by Charlemagne (r. 768–814) and his heirs as a ‘family-state’, an exercise in

in Debating medieval Europe
Abstract only
Paul Fouracre

censuales in Germany and people referred to as colliberti in what had become France. The comparison was inviting because both France and Germany had been ruled as kingdoms which were parts of the same Frankish empire. They shared a legacy of laws, both secular and ecclesiastical, which suggests that they may have had a common approach to meeting the needs of the Church. Comparison, however, proved difficult as it had to comprehend differences in modern historiography and different ways of thinking about post-Carolingian development. The result was a chapter ( Chapter 5

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
The abbé Mably
Rachel Hammersley

the question of geography he even exceeded their proposals. Despite their cosmopolitanism, their practical reform proposals had tended to remain focused on Britain itself. Mably, by contrast, not only applied these ideas to France, but also was able to use his appeal to the gothic past to conceive of a republic that embraced much of Western Europe, along the lines of the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne.32 The moral question It is not only on purely political matters that Mably’s views resemble those of the British commonwealthmen. Like them, he was also deeply

in The English republican tradition and eighteenth-century France
Luc Bourgeois

defensive constructions between 750 and the tenth century; the emergence of new categories of fortified settlements at that time; and, finally, the architectural innovations that generated the classical castle around the year 1000. The aim of this chapter is not to provide a new synthesis on Carolingian fortification; it is limited to introducing recent and sometimes unpublished archaeological work carried out in three contemporary countries, which roughly correspond to the western part of the Frankish Empire. The legacy of the past

in Early medieval militarisation
Abstract only
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

, although at the end of his life, in 814, his son Louis was the only survivor and succeeded his father as ruler of the empire. Family conflict erupted in the rebellions of Louis’s three older sons, particularly after the allocation of territory to Charles the Bald, Louis’s six-year-old son by his second wife, Judith, in 829. 13 Following Louis’s death, in 840, the Treaty of Verdun split the Frankish Empire into three major parts: in 843 Charles the Bald was allocated the west, Louis the German the territories east of the Rhine and Lothar a Middle Kingdom; in 855 this

in Neighbours and strangers