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Anthropology, European imperialism, and the politics of knowledge

Many questions present themselves when considering the historical relationship between anthropology and empire following the Scramble for Africa. These include the extent of imperial fortunes in Africa, rising and falling with officials' knowledge of the people under their jurisdiction. This book looks at the institutional frameworks of anthropology, and shows that the colonial project to order Africa, intellectually and politically, was a messy and not-so comprehensive endeavor. It first considers the roles of metropolitan researchers and institutes such as the colonial ethnographers active in French West Africa, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Berlin, and the British-based International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. The book deals with the role of African ethnograpghers for their study on African teaching assistants and schoolmasters-cum-ethnographers, and the study of Jomo Kenyatta's journey to produce Facing Mount Kenya. Swiss missionaries undertook discovery and domestication first on European soil before it was transferred to African soils and societies. Primordial imagination at work in equatorial Africa is discussed through an analysis of Fang ethnographies, and the infertility scares among Mongo in the Belgian Congo is contrasted with the Nzakara in the French Congo. Once colonial rule had been imposed, administrators and imperial managers were often forced to consider those judicial and social rules that had governed Africans' lives and had predated colonialism. Studies of Italian Northeast Africa, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and French West Africa reveal the uneven ways in which ethnographic knowledge was pursued and applied in this respect.

Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Berny Sèbe

Stanley at the Paris Stanley Club, on 21 October 1882, combined with a vigorous lobbying effort led by former Premier Léon Gambetta and his Republican friends, won Parliament over to the cause of the French Congo. 39 Brazza’s ability to stir public opinion about his exploits, and the ensuing popular interest in Central Africa, proved to be decisive factors. The newspaper Le

in Heroic imperialists in Africa
Emmanuelle Sibeud

Africa. In promoting a comprehensive ethnology, the study of ‘primitive’ African societies could not be neglected; furthermore, since the campaign against the crimes in the Belgian (King Leopold) and the French Congo in 1905, Africa appeared to be the place where the science of humanity was most needed to enlighten colonial domination. Yet Mauss was

in Ordering Africa
Martin Thomas

colonies against de Gaulle, especially as Boisson in Dakar now toed the Vichy line. 86 The progressive extension of Pétain’s control in July has made the ralliement of Chad, the French Congo, Oubangui-Chari and Cameroon in the last week of August appear all the more audacious. But it bears emphasis that these declarations for Free France were

in The French empire at war 1940–45
Maryinez Lyons

campaign was being fought from offices in Brussels, not Africa. 20 Sleeping sickness and administrative control Sleeping sickness policy was intertwined with broader issues of territorial administration, and this linkage began to emerge clearly after 1910. For instance, there was the problem of controlling the movements of people both within the colony and across its international frontiers. French Congo

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
Abstract only
Daniel Laqua

stage, official enquiries had acknowledged abuses in both the Congo Free State and the French Congo; the delegates therefore proposed a successor event to the Berlin Africa Conference.118 This attempt to combat colonial crimes through the tools of internationalism continued in subsequent years: in 1907, pacifists demanded that the provisions for international arbitration be extended to the Congo.119 Such instances highlight the interactions between humanitarians and peace activists. Morel himself subsequently embarked on a trajectory towards pacifism: this, it has

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
Martin Thomas

very limited reform. 7 In the closed world of Gaullist administration within Equatorial Africa and the French Cameroon, the white planter communities which had dominated the pre-war administrations of the French Congo, the Cameroon and Gabon still exerted powerful influence. 8 Eboué was reluctant to challenge this by encouraging the growth of a

in The French empire at war 1940–45
John M. Cinnamon

through his copious Fang ethnography (Trilles, n.d., 1898, 1900, 1912a,b, 1920, 1931). At issue here is not the truth or falsehood of Trilles’ ethnographic observations, but his role, through fieldwork and scholarship, in the elaboration of a Fang historical imagination. 8 Trilles’ participation in the 1899 Lesieur–Trilles expedition in Rio Muni, Northern French Congo

in Ordering Africa
Martin Thomas

legislation authorised the authorities in Gabon, French Congo, Oubangui-Chari and Chad to determine the age limits, gender restrictions and permissible types of employment for the colonial work force. Albert Sarraut, once again Minister of Colonies, this time in Raymond Poincaré’s second government, insisted that all workers in AEF taken on for over three months by a single employer

in The French empire between the wars