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The French army, African soldiers and military propaganda during the 1950s
Ruth Ginio

4 ‘Saving French West Africa’: the French army, African soldiers and military propaganda during the 1950s1 Ruth Ginio When the French Army, in the years following the Second World War, was sent to defend the Empire in Indochina, Madagascar, and Algeria, African soldiers recruited in French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française: AOF) fought sideby-side with French soldiers against the anti-colonial movements in these turbulent parts of the French Empire. Nevertheless, while each of these subjects – the decolonisation of the French Empire and the military

in Francophone Africa at fifty
Gary Wilder

administration oriented toward population management, socio-economic regulation and social welfare. 4 The concept is therefore useful both for understanding the interconnected relationship between ethnography, as a form of practical science, and native policy as a form of scientific administration, and for appreciating the features of the new welfarism in French West Africa. Instrumental

in Ordering Africa
Invented traditions and ideologies...
Liora Bigon

well as in French West Africa in general. Relying on primary and secondary sources and on fieldwork, we would like to explore the stylistic origins of these markets and to analyse their meaning against the background of the colonial situation in sub-Saharan Africa. Moving from the transplanted fin-de-siècle neo-Moorish towards an imagined neo-Sudanese, we discuss each paradox, on both theoretical and

in French colonial Dakar
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Anthropology, European imperialism, and the politics of knowledge

Many questions present themselves when considering the historical relationship between anthropology and empire following the Scramble for Africa. These include the extent of imperial fortunes in Africa, rising and falling with officials' knowledge of the people under their jurisdiction. This book looks at the institutional frameworks of anthropology, and shows that the colonial project to order Africa, intellectually and politically, was a messy and not-so comprehensive endeavor. It first considers the roles of metropolitan researchers and institutes such as the colonial ethnographers active in French West Africa, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Berlin, and the British-based International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. The book deals with the role of African ethnograpghers for their study on African teaching assistants and schoolmasters-cum-ethnographers, and the study of Jomo Kenyatta's journey to produce Facing Mount Kenya. Swiss missionaries undertook discovery and domestication first on European soil before it was transferred to African soils and societies. Primordial imagination at work in equatorial Africa is discussed through an analysis of Fang ethnographies, and the infertility scares among Mongo in the Belgian Congo is contrasted with the Nzakara in the French Congo. Once colonial rule had been imposed, administrators and imperial managers were often forced to consider those judicial and social rules that had governed Africans' lives and had predated colonialism. Studies of Italian Northeast Africa, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and French West Africa reveal the uneven ways in which ethnographic knowledge was pursued and applied in this respect.

Relations between Africans and French by 1960 were far from unambiguous, and far from being sufficiently understood. More than fifty years later, these complex themes require further analysis. This book addresses many open questions regarding the Franco-African experience through five major themes. The first part of the book analyses the late colonial state, and discusses some politico-administrative decisions taken in the last years of the French colonial empire. It considers the loi-cadre, the Gaston Defferre Law, and discusses Guinea-Conakry, apparently a model country of nationalist activities in the 1950s, and the behaviour of French officials in August 1960 in one of the first important political crises. The 'military bond' narrative and military continuities are addressed in the second part of the book. The forms of propaganda employed by the French army to motivate African soldiers in French West Africa, the military transition in French Soudan/Mali, and the colonial war against Mauritanian insurgents after independence are discussed. The third part of the book sheds light on key elements of continuity in relations between Africans and French, with a focus on the question of educational cooperation. The fourth part sets the French and the British trajectories in relation to each other, and examines the attempt by the French to make an entry into Southern Rhodesia. The book presents case studies of the effects of the memory of processes that took place during the transfer of power and during the establishment of post-colonial relations between African leaders and the former metropole.

African participation in the production of colonial knowledge in French West Africa, 1910–1950
Jean-Hervé Jezequel

unequal distribution of scholarly labor Shortly after its founding in 1895, the colonial administration in French West Africa was preoccupied with investigating local African societies. Such knowledge, the administration thought, would permit a better understanding of native cultures as well as a better means to control them (Robinson 1992). As

in Ordering Africa
Between garden and city
Alain Sinou

the new administrative centres, or chefs-lieux , of the colonies. At the same time, an action plan was set up. The Ministry for the Colonies defined the directives and the broad lines of the policy. The federation governments created at that time, French West Africa (AOF, Afrique Occidental Française) and French Equatorial Africa (AEF, Afrique Equatoriale Française), were

in Garden cities and colonial planning
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Tony Chafer and Alexander Keese

occupied the post of Governor of Côte d’Ivoire between 1954 and 1956, when this territory became for a time the model country for a future reformed ‘French Union’ in sub-Saharan Africa; Messmer acted as High Commissioner in all key territories or groups of territories (Cameroon, French Equatorial Africa, French West Africa), then became War Minister and Prime Minister in governments of the Fifth Republic. Messmer is a prototype for the emergence of a positive discourse on French decolonisation on the African continent: in the academic context his activity as author and

in Francophone Africa at fifty
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Eminence grise for African affairs
Jean-Pierre Bat

referendum as he organised De Gaulle’s tour through France’s African colonies of Madagascar, French Equatorial Africa (AEF) and French West Africa (AOF). Even though he succeeded in his undertaking, this feat should not obscure the fact that he also participated in redrawing the map of decolonised French Africa. Indeed, Foccart supported Houphouët-Boigny’s conception of a federal French-speaking West African against Dia’s and Senghor’s idea of a French-speaking West Africa confederation. The federal solution was based on direct, bilateral links between Paris and each

in Francophone Africa at fifty
Martin Thomas

French feminist engagement with the underlying economic injustice of colonial rule was rare indeed. Denise Moran Savineau’s official survey of the social condition of women in French West Africa, conducted on behalf of Governor-general Marcel de Coppet in 1937–38, was highly unusual. Moran was a colonial education specialist who made her name with a devastating critique of

in The French empire between the wars