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An oral history
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This book provides a unique perspective on the Allied bombing of France during the Second World War which killed around 57,000 French civilians. Using oral history as well as archival research, it provides an insight into children's wartime lives in which bombing often featured prominently, even though it has slipped out of French collective memory. The book compares three French towns with different experiences of bombing: Boulogne-Billancourt , Brest, and Lille. Divided into three parts dealing with expectations, experiences and explanations of bombing, the book considers the child's view of wartime violence, analysing resilience, understanding and trauma. The first part of the book deals with the time before bombing. It examines how the French prepared for war and preparations made specifically for bombing, showing how state-level and municipal-level preparations. The second part considers the time during bombing and its aftermath. It discusses the experience of being bombed, examining children's practical, sensory and emotional responses. The fascinating and frightening scenes in the immediate aftermath of bombing that made lasting impressions on children, including destruction, chaos and encounters with violent, public death. Changes in status as a result of bombing becoming a sinistre, refugee or evacuee had far-reaching consequences in some children's lives, affecting their education and economic situation. The last section looks at the way in which air raids were explained to the French population. It considers the propaganda that criticised and defended the Allies, and an understanding of the history of Vichy.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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Lindsey Dodd

 France During the Second World War in France, children comprised just over a quarter of the population.9 I have taken ‘children’ to mean those aged sixteen and younger. Until 1941, the E, J1 and J2 ration categories only covered those up to and including thirteen-year-olds; fourteen and older was categorised as A  (adult). From 1941, as a result of ongoing nutritional research, the new J3 ration category was introduced for those aged fourteen to twenty-one. While wartime rationing as well as compulsory school attendance ended childhood at fourteen, some youngsters remained in

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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A conclusion
Lindsey Dodd

that children should have a place in histories of the Occupation, not least because they were used actually and symbolically by the Vichy regime to further its goals. No weapon affected children more than bombing, as homes were struck and evacuation ensued. It was often urban and working-class children who suffered most as they tended to live nearer to targets, and their families were less able to overcome any consequent material hardship. Exacerbating problems of hunger and cold, bombing contributed to the poor state of French children’s health during wartime; it

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

paper shortages prevented the replacement of all textbooks.6 A school broadcasting unit, Radio-Scolaire, had existed since the late 1930s,7 and Radio-Vichy’s entertainment programme ‘Bonjour la France!’ broadcast children’s features of a Pétainist bent until autumn 1941; after that, young listeners might have found something of interest on Radio-Jeunesse or Radio-Famille. On Radio-Paris, ‘Aunt Simone’ hosted a children’s programme that propagated a collaborationist message.8 Some French children may have accessed pro-Allied propaganda. While the difficulties of

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Popular agency, activity and the reframing of history
Jessica Wardhaugh

en cas de bombardements’, Le Petit Journal , 26 September 1938. Cf. ‘Vers un Règlement général’, Le Petit Parisien , 30 September 1938 . Lindsey Dodd discusses the use of blue street lamps in the context of civil defence in French Children under Allied Bombs, 1940–45: An Oral History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016), p. 70. 2 ‘Depuis quelques jours, Paris s’enveloppe chaque soir d’une ombre protectrice. Les réverbères ont en effet été mis en veilleuse et leur lumière crue a souvent fait place à une petite lumière bleue.’ Regards , 31

in The Munich Crisis, politics and the people
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Lindsey Dodd

painted an outmoded picture. But conflicts unfolding in the present brought children an understanding of modern warfare. Although Spain, China and Abysinnia were distant, the events of the fateful Septembers in 1938 and 1939 brought present war onto French children’s doorsteps. Of the thirty million people visiting the Exposition Internationale des arts et techniques de la vie moderne in Paris during 1937, many saw Picasso’s Guernica, a graphic representation of modern war. The painting showed civilians targeted, reflecting a reality known to the population through

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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The material and visual culture of the Stuart Courts, 1589–1619
Author:

This book analyses Anna of Denmark’s material and visual patronage at the Stuart courts, examining her engagement with a wide array of expressive media including architecture, garden design, painting, music, dress, and jewellery. Encompassing Anna’s time in Denmark, England, and Scotland, it establishes patterns of interest and influence in her agency, while furthering our knowledge of Baltic-British transfer in the early modern period. Substantial archival work has facilitated a formative re-conceptualisation of James and Anna’s relationship, extended our knowledge of the constituents of consortship in the period, and has uncovered evidence to challenge the view that Anna followed the cultural accomplishments of her son, Prince Henry. This book reclaims Anna of Denmark as the influential and culturally active royal woman that her contemporaries knew. Combining politics, culture, and religion across the courts of Denmark, Scotland, and England, it enriches our understanding of royal women’s roles in early modern patriarchal societies and their impact on the development of cultural modes and fashions. This book will be of interest to upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on early modern Europe in the disciplines of Art and Architectural History, English Literature, Theatre Studies, History, and Gender Studies. It will also attract a wide range of academics working on early modern material and visual culture, and female patronage, while members of the public who enjoy the history of courts and the British royals will also find it distinctively appealing.

Conservative primary socialization
Andy Smith

and families are diverse, as are parenting styles, locations and individual schools ( Lahire, 2019 ). However, recurrent patterns of thought, norms and behaviour can nevertheless be discerned. Indeed, in keeping with the thesis of this book as a whole, this chapter shows that societal structures – i.e. institutions and power relations – together with the political work that changes or reproduces them, are key. As sets of stabilized rules, norms and conventions, institutions set parameters upon the lives of French children by strongly guiding parenting and schooling

in Made in France