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From Kant to Nietzsche

In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.

Sara Eckerson

readings that any critical or hermeneutic discourse on the Fourth Piano Concerto must reckon with – namely, that the second movement has a ‘programmatic’ relation to the Orpheus myth. 5 The hermeneutic method that is used in the present study is non-narrative-based and derived from the nineteenth-century hermeneutic theory developed by Friedrich Schleiermacher. 6 The word cues in the score are considered in light of the ‘grammatical

in Manchester Beethoven studies
Transhistorical empathy and the Chaucerian face
Louise D’Arcens

nineteenthcentury thinker Friedrich Schleiermacher, who in turn derived it from the Romantic hermeneutics of Johann Gottfried Herder. It is not my purpose in this chapter to disentangle all the permutations of how Einfühlung and its related terms have been formulated by each of them;4 rather I want to draw out the common aspects that are most suggestive for a consideration of empathic responses to Chaucer. First, all agree that this is a mode of understanding that emerges out of the exchange between a body and a perceived object (in the cases that will be examined later, Chaucer

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
Johan Östling

this old but still existing order. Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Friedrich Schleiermacher all argued that the philosophical faculty should be placed on a par with, and even be given precedence over, the other three. In Der Streit der Fakultäten (1798) Kant spoke of a conflict between, on the one hand, the faculty of philosophy and, on the other, the faculties of theology, law, and medicine. In defiance of then-prevalent ideas, Kant argued that the faculty of philosophy was superior because it was independent of demands for utility and free from links to

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Wolfgang Müller-Funk

from philosophy, especially from phenomenology, and secondly from Freud's psychoanalysis. In Culture and Its Discontents , Freud argues against Roman Rolland's idea of an oceanic feeling that is close to Friedrich Schleiermacher's and connected to the modernist idea of disintegration (Freud, 2001 : 72; Freud, 2016 : 51). This oceanic feeling is seen as a form of infantile borderless existence. Freud's scepticism goes hand in hand with the argument that there is a need for human beings to develop certain forms of internal barriers to create an individual identity

in Border images, border narratives
Abstract only
Thinking with saints
Gareth Atkins

continental and British) to contemporary Nonconformity, which latter category encompassed Elizabeth Fry, Thomas Chalmers, David Livingstone, Friedrich Schleiermacher and the recently deceased Dale. For the German modernist theologian Friedrich Heiler (1892–1967) Mansfield was ‘the most Catholic place in Oxford’ (figure 2).8 These two contrasting examples introduce the central contention of this book: that ‘saints’ – holy men and women – were pivotal in religious discourse throughout the nineteenth century, and remained so well beyond it. For despite their qualms about 2

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
Andrew Bowie

2 German Idealism and early German Romanticism Thinking the infinite The immediate consequences from the 1790s onwards of the perceived failure of Kant’s attempt to ground philosophy in the principle of subjectivity are apparent in two areas of philosophy which carry the broad names ‘German Idealism’, which is mainly associated with Fichte, Schelling and Hegel; and ‘early Romanticism’, which is mainly associated with Novalis, Friedrich Schlegel and (in some respects) Friedrich Schleiermacher.1 There are, as we shall see, crucial respects in which these two

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
The strange case of J. S. Mill
Lynn Zastoupil

was his reading of European authors. Although familiar with Herder, it seems certain that Mill did not absorb the concept from its Ur-​source. He rarely mentioned the German in his writings,24 and then mostly as a pioneer of a new scientific approach to history that had caught on among French historians, but not yet with 25 Intellectual flows and counterflows the British.25 Also unlikely sources are those German thinkers known to Mill who were influenced by Herder’s doctrine, such as August Wilhelm Schlegel and Friedrich Schleiermacher. Although Mill owned or knew

in Colonial exchanges
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

its exegesis was the collection of texts and speeches that Christoph Markschies published on the eve of the bicentenary of the Berlin University in 2010, Was von Humboldt noch zu lernen ist. Markschies, who had at that point been rector of Humboldt-Universität for four years, was at bottom a theologian, a patristics scholar, and a professor of church history with an international reputation. His references ranged from Christendom in classical antiquity via Friedrich Schleiermacher to completely contemporaneous events. In his book, Markschies made use of the insights

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art
Andrew Bowie

the issues raised by Hegel in the Conclusion, when I examine them in relation to Rorty’s separation of ‘public’ and ‘private’ in the understanding of modern culture. Rorty regards the ‘public’, problem-solving resources of natural science and ‘projects of social cooperation’ as rightly becoming separate from ‘private’ projects of self-development in modernity. The tensions this entails already appear in the work of Hegel’s contemporary and rival Friedrich Schleiermacher. It is to him that we now turn for an account of philosophy and art which proposes a serious

in Aesthetics and subjectivity