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Lord Leverhulme, soap and civilization
Author: Brian Lewis

This book is an unorthodox biography of William Hesketh Lever, 1st Lord Leverhulme (1851-1925), the founder of the Lever Brothers' Sunlight Soap empire. The most frequently recurring comparison during his life and at his death, however, was with Napoleon. What the author finds most fascinating about him is that he unites within one person so many intriguing developments of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The book first sketches out his life, the rise and triumph of his business, and explores his homes, his gardens and his collections. It contains essays on Lever in the context of the history of advertising, of factory paternalism, town planning, the Garden City movement and their ramifications across the twentieth century, and of colonial encounters. Lever had worked hard at opening agencies and selling his soap abroad since 1888. But if import drives proved unsatisfactory, logic dictated that soap should be manufactured and sold locally, both to reduce the price by vaulting tariff barriers on imports and to cater for idiosyncratic local tastes. As D. K. Fieldhouse points out, Lever Brothers was one of the first generation of capitalist concerns to manufacture in a number of countries. The company opened or started building factories in America, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and Germany in the late 1890s. It then spread to most western European countries and the other white settler colonies of the empire, as well as more tentatively to Asia and Africa.

The case of Tel Aviv
Miki Zaidman and Ruth Kark

suburb’ (1907), both in the UK, and Ahuzat Bayit (1909), as well as some physical similarities, has led researchers to seek a connection between the two, and to term Ahuzat Bayit a ‘garden neighbourhood’. At first, the garden city movement was a social-anarchist one, whose objective was to extend the suburban standard of housing, until then the province of the middle class, to the

in Garden cities and colonial planning
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Matthew Steele

Manchester is not a city readily associated with green space. Yet, in order to alleviate inner-city slum conditions and poor air quality, it was the Garden City Movement that the city’s municipal authorities looked to when planning new housing estates on land to the south of the city centre in the interwar years. Subsequently referred to as Wythenshawe Garden Suburb, residents had access to their own private gardens which they were encouraged to look after and cultivate. This chapter looks at the importance of these private gardens to early residents of the estate, and how these once-valued green spaces have fared after almost one hundred years of change.

in Manchester
German-Jewish literaryproposals on garden cities in Eretz Israel
Ines Sonder

and the garden city movement were published by him. 32 Trietsch was a zealous collector of the publications of the German garden city movement. In a number of his writings one can find quotes from Hans Kampffmeyer (1876–1932), the first general secretary of the Deutsche Gartenstadt-Gesellschaft , and other garden city adherents. He repeatedly cited statistical data

in Garden cities and colonial planning
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Garden cities and colonial planning: transnationality and urban ideas in Africa and Palestine
Liora Bigon

geographically centred in Europe and North America. They mainly consisted of the experimental precedents of the model villages and towns built by industrialists in Europe during the second half of the nineteenth century, especially in Britain and France. This was also the case regarding the second international aspect of the garden city movement, its members’ origins and areas of

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Helena Chance

Frederick Law Olmsted, quickly spread throughout the nation. In the years before the First World War, organisations such as the American Civic Association, founded in 1904, and numerous local civic initiatives, took up City Beautiful ideals and promoted the idea of beauty through landscaping in towns and cities. By the early 1900s, the movement was in full swing in both nations, but by this time, the Garden City Movement, now burgeoning in England and spreading rapidly to the USA, represented by its flagship Letchworth Garden City, produced some alternative ideas for

in The factory in a garden
Examples from late Ottoman-era Palestine and the late British Mandate
Yossi Katz and Liora Bigon

in 1899. Its aim was to implement the principles expressed in Howard’s book and to bring about the establishment of garden cities. 4 In England, the construction of Letchworth, the first garden city, began in 1903. Letchworth demonstrated the feasibility of Howard’s ideas. It was mainly due to the influence of the garden city movement that the 1909 town planning legislation in

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Dakar between garden city and cité-jardin
Liora Bigon

ideals that shaped the early garden city movement in England were embedded, especially before the First World War, in a vision of Englishness. The green and pleasant heaven that this vision represented was to be based on selective elements drawn from a mythic past, in order to replace an ugly and unhealthy urban hell and its accompanying fears of class struggle and expanding

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

Zanzibar as the garden city of tomorrow
Garth Andrew Myers and Makame Ali Muhajir

Madras), 1 Lanchester also wrote the first comprehensive town planning scheme for the British Protectorate of Zanzibar’s capital (also called Zanzibar). This plan was strongly influenced by Patrick Geddes and by the garden city movement more broadly. Despite its limited degree of implementation, Lanchester’s 1923 plan for Zanzibar has cast a long shadow over planning in that

in Garden cities and colonial planning