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Richard Taylor

6 George Orwell Orwell was fundamentally English in his persona and ideology; and wholly radical, within the context of the English radical tradition. Although he died in early 1950, what he wrote and, still more, what he stood for – or what has been interpreted as standing for – have a contemporary relevance. His major works have never been out of print and continue to reach new generations, and address vividly some of the central political and ideological issues of the modern world. If any single person can be said to embody twentieth-century English

in English radicalism in the twentieth century
George Orwell

3 Rudyard Kipling (1942) George Orwell 1 I t was a pity that Mr Eliot should be so much on the defensive in the long essay with which he prefaces this selection of Kipling’s poetry,2 but it was not to be avoided, because before one can even speak about Kipling one has to clear away a legend that has been created by two sets of people who have not read his works. Kipling is in the peculiar position of having been a by-word for fifty years. During five literary generations every enlightened person has despised him, and at the end of that time nine tenths of

in In Time’s eye
The Spanish Civil War in cinema

This book charts the changing nature of cinematic depictions of the Spanish Civil War. In 1936, a significant number of artists, filmmakers and writers – from George Orwell and Pablo Picasso to Joris Ivens and Joan Miró – rallied to support the country's democratically elected Republican government. The arts have played an important role in shaping popular understandings of the Spanish Civil War, and the book examines the specific role cinema has played in this process. Its focus is on fictional feature films produced within Spain and beyond its borders between the 1940s and the early years of the twenty-first century – including Hollywood blockbusters, East European films, the work of the avant garde in Paris and films produced under Franco's censorial dictatorship.

‘Outside the Whale’ and the fight for the 1930s
Scott Hamilton

rubbed salt into the wounds of those who had seen Spain as a symbol of the struggle against a fascist ideology that now menaced Britain itself. Even before he left for America, Auden had been a controversial figure in Britain. George Orwell, a journalist and budding novelist with bitter memories of the intra-left struggles that were part of the Spanish Civil War, had used an article in the journal The Adelphi to attack Auden and Spain. According to Orwell, Auden and his friends Stephen Spender and Cecil Day-Lewis were ‘fashionable pansies’ who romanticised the horrors

in The crisis of theory
The influence of Trotskyism in Britain
John Callaghan

managers who would solve the inefficiencies of capitalism by centralised planning, bringing the masses into a lasting subordination. Germany, Japan and the United States would dominate international relations as managerial powers, while the Soviet Union would be partitioned by the first two. George Orwell George Orwell followed these arguments with interest. Throughout the 1930s he gravitated to dissident Marxist circles and was preoccupied by questions such as those posed above about the nature of the Communist parties and the Comintern, the nature of the Stalin regime

in Against the grain
Writing, painting and photography
John Corner

comparatively another mode of portrayal, painting, to which notions of ‘documentary’ can be applied only with some awkwardness (despite the directness of DOCUMENTARY EXPRESSION AND PHYSICALITY OF REFERENT 169 visual engagement), but nevertheless often with some illumination too. Finally, I want to consider how the photographic image, around which an extensive literature of comment on documentary functions has developed, works within its distinctive alignments of the pictorial and the physical. THREE WRITTEN ACCOUNTS Example 1: George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier

in Theorising Media
The other side of Thompson’s critique
Scott Hamilton

8 ‘Don’t Tread on Me’: the other side of Thompson’s critique As the first text in The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays shows, EP Thompson was keenly interested in George Orwell. Some commentators – Christopher Norris, for example – have suggested that there are many similarities between the writing and thinking of Thompson and Orwell.1 Thompson would not, of course, have appreciated that comparison. Even if other comparisons are not justified, we can certainly say that Thompson’s and Orwell’s most controversial works have met with strangely similar

in The crisis of theory
Anglo-American attitudes in the English fiction of mid-century
Patrick Parrinder

tribute to George Orwell, who had died five months earlier at the age of forty-seven. Much of this special number was given over to Orwell’s unpublished notebooks from 1940–41, in which he commented on the progress of the second world war from Dunkirk to the German occupation of the Ukraine. In 1950 the aftermath of war was everywhere, both in literature – novels set in wartime London included Elizabeth Bowen’s The Heat of the Day (1949) and Graham Greene’s The End of the Affair (1951) – and in everyday life. Postwar austerity under the Attlee government included

in End of empire and the English novel since 1945
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Bryan Fanning

14 Partisan reviews Beyond the need to earn a living there were, George Orwell reckoned in his 1946 essay ‘Why I Write’, four great motives for writing prose: sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, the desire to see things as they are and, his own main reason, political purpose.1 Periodicals and Journalism in Twentieth-Century Ireland, edited by Mark O’Brien and Felix Larkin, is the first comprehensive survey of its kind of outlets for Irish public intellectuals and journalists who shared Orwell’s reasons for writing. Whilst some of these periodicals championed

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Conversation between party and nation
Stephen Ingle

Northern Ireland too’ (2008: 38). He opted to talk about British rather than English values. George Orwell, acknowledging the same problem, chose to write about Englishness, though his intention was to galvanise the British patriotic instinct in the war against Hitler’s Germany. We shall talk about the English and Englishness here but must bear in mind not only that any

in These Englands