While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.
With an eye to recovering the experiences of those in frontier zones of contact, Savage worlds maps a wide range of different encounters between Germans and non-European indigenous peoples in the age of high imperialism. Examining outbreaks of radical violence as well as instances of mutual co-operation, it examines the differing goals and experiences of German explorers, settlers, travellers, merchants, and academics, and how the variety of projects they undertook shaped their relationship with the indigenous peoples they encountered. Whether in the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas or Africa, within Germany’s formal empire or in the imperial spaces of other powers, Germans brought with them assumptions about the nature of extra-European peoples. These assumptions were often subverted, disrupted or overturned by their own experience of frontier interactions, which led some Germans to question European ‘knowledge’ of these non-European peoples. Other Germans, however, signally failed to shift from their earlier assumptions about indigenous people and continued to act in the colonies according to their belief in the innate superiority of Europeans. Examining the multifaceted nature of German interactions with indigenous populations, the wide ranging research presented in this volume offers historians and anthropologists a clear demonstration of the complexity of frontier zone encounters. It illustrates the variety of forms that agency took for both indigenous peoples and Germans in imperial zones of contact and poses the question of how far Germans were able to overcome their initial belief that, in leaving Europe, they were entering ‘savage worlds’.
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Conclusion: Germany, space and
The book started out in the Introduction by identifying three intellectual themes which it wished to address: the importance of space
and ideas about space in understanding urban history; the complex
ways that the category of modernity is modelled in contemporary
discourse; and, indirectly, the metanarratives of Germanhistory.
The subsequent chapters focused on the people who manipulated
urban space in the service of a particular set of goals – especially
Twentieth-century Germany in the debates of Anglo-American international
lawyers and transitional justice experts
remained imbued with dichotomous notions of Germanhistory.
‘A guilty despoiler of international law’: rights imagination from the First World War to the Second World War
When war broke out in 1914, most internationalists considered this a heavy setback for their ideas and aspirations. Many adherents of IL and ‘scientific pacifism’ declared their loyalty to the war efforts of their political and military leaderships. But as Glenda Sluga has recently noted, within ‘the spate of a year, the conflict’s furious and relentless course had revived the relevance of
were fought about the university and its mission. All in all, this
phase comes across as one of the most debate-intensive periods in
modern Germanhistory – fully comparable to the 1920s, the late
1940s, and the 1960s.
Several specific circumstances imparted particular fervour to
the debate. The years following 2000 witnessed the publication of
several works which revealed the serious condition in which the
German educational system found itself. The first report that PISA
(Programme for International Student Assessment) presented in 2001
undoubtedly came in for the
This volume traces changing images of Germany in the field of International
Relations (IR). Images of countries are mental representations with audio-visual
and narrative dimensions that identify typical or even unique characteristics.
This book focuses on perceptions of Germany from the English-speaking world and
on the role they played in the development of twentieth-century IR theory. When
the discipline originated, liberal internationalists contrasted cooperative
foreign policies with inherently aggressive Prussianism. Early realists
developed their ideas with reference to the German fight against the Treaty of
Versailles. Geopoliticians and German emigre scholars relied on German history
when they translated historical experiences into social-scientific vocabularies.
The book demonstrates that few states have seen their image change as
drastically as Germany during the century. After the Second World War, liberals,
lawyers, and constructivists developed new theories and concepts in view of the
Nuremberg trials, the transformation of the former enemy into an ally of the
West, and Germany’s new commitment to multilateralism. Today, IR theorists
discuss the perplexing nature of ‘civilian power’ Germany – an economic giant
but a military dwarf. Yet the chapters in this volume also show that there has
never been just one image of Germany, but always several standing next to each
other in a sometimes compatible and sometimes contradictory manner.
This book analyses Anna of Denmark’s material and visual patronage at the Stuart
courts, examining her engagement with a wide array of expressive media including
architecture, garden design, painting, music, dress, and jewellery. Encompassing
Anna’s time in Denmark, England, and Scotland, it establishes patterns of
interest and influence in her agency, while furthering our knowledge of
Baltic-British transfer in the early modern period. Substantial archival work
has facilitated a formative re-conceptualisation of James and Anna’s
relationship, extended our knowledge of the constituents of consortship in the
period, and has uncovered evidence to challenge the view that Anna followed the
cultural accomplishments of her son, Prince Henry. This book reclaims Anna of
Denmark as the influential and culturally active royal woman that her
contemporaries knew. Combining politics, culture, and religion across the courts
of Denmark, Scotland, and England, it enriches our understanding of royal
women’s roles in early modern patriarchal societies and their impact on the
development of cultural modes and fashions. This book will be of interest to
upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on early
modern Europe in the disciplines of Art and Architectural History, English
Literature, Theatre Studies, History, and Gender Studies. It will also attract a
wide range of academics working on early modern material and visual culture, and
female patronage, while members of the public who enjoy the history of courts
and the British royals will also find it distinctively appealing.
Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism. Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence. Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles. This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.
The Weimar Republic, fourteen years of turbulent political, economic, social and cultural change, has attracted significant attention from historians, primarily because they are seeking to explain the Nazis’ accession to power in 1933. In their search for continuities in Germanhistory, German historians in the 1960s and 1970s espoused the view that Germany had followed a special path, a Sonderweg , in which, following the failure of bourgeois liberals to unify Germany in 1848, the German nation-state created by Prussian military might in 1871 remained a
themselves publicly from their prior errors. 16
Part of the problem in Britain and the United States was the paucity of first-rate historians who had concerned themselves with recent Germanhistory before 1939. Most American scholars interested in Europe explored the common cultural heritage with Great Britain or worked on the impulses of the Enlightenment and the revolution emanating from France. In contrast to such a shared heritage, Germany seemed rather problematic, attracting only the interest of diplomatic historians like Sidney Fay or