Elite European migrants in the British Empire

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

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German encounters abroad, 1798-1914

With an eye to recovering the experiences of those in frontier zones of contact, Savage worlds maps a wide range of different encounters between Germans and non-European indigenous peoples in the age of high imperialism. Examining outbreaks of radical violence as well as instances of mutual co-operation, it examines the differing goals and experiences of German explorers, settlers, travellers, merchants, and academics, and how the variety of projects they undertook shaped their relationship with the indigenous peoples they encountered.

Whether in the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas or Africa, within Germany’s formal empire or in the imperial spaces of other powers, Germans brought with them assumptions about the nature of extra-European peoples. These assumptions were often subverted, disrupted or overturned by their own experience of frontier interactions, which led some Germans to question European ‘knowledge’ of these non-European peoples. Other Germans, however, signally failed to shift from their earlier assumptions about indigenous people and continued to act in the colonies according to their belief in the innate superiority of Europeans.

Examining the multifaceted nature of German interactions with indigenous populations, the wide ranging research presented in this volume offers historians and anthropologists a clear demonstration of the complexity of frontier zone encounters. It illustrates the variety of forms that agency took for both indigenous peoples and Germans in imperial zones of contact and poses the question of how far Germans were able to overcome their initial belief that, in leaving Europe, they were entering ‘savage worlds’.

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Germany, space and modernity

M1054 JERRAM TEXT M/UP.qxd:Andy Q7.3 18/10/07 10:04 Page 192 Conclusion: Germany, space and modernity The book started out in the Introduction by identifying three intellectual themes which it wished to address: the importance of space and ideas about space in understanding urban history; the complex ways that the category of modernity is modelled in contemporary discourse; and, indirectly, the metanarratives of German history. The subsequent chapters focused on the people who manipulated urban space in the service of a particular set of goals – especially

in Germany’s other modernity
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were fought about the university and its mission. All in all, this phase comes across as one of the most debate-intensive periods in modern German history – fully comparable to the 1920s, the late 1940s, and the 1960s. Several specific circumstances imparted particular fervour to the debate. The years following 2000 witnessed the publication of several works which revealed the serious condition in which the German educational system found itself. The first report that PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) presented in 2001 undoubtedly came in for the

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Irish republican media activism since the Good Friday Agreement

Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism.

Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence.

Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles.

This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.

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Introduction The Weimar Republic, fourteen years of turbulent political, economic, social and cultural change, has attracted significant attention from historians, primarily because they are seeking to explain the Nazis’ accession to power in 1933. In their search for continuities in German history, German historians in the 1960s and 1970s espoused the view that Germany had followed a special path, a Sonderweg, in which, following the failure of bourgeois liberals to unify Germany in 1848, the German nation-­state created by Prussian military might in 1871

in Women in the Weimar Republic
Transatlantic debates about the Nazi past

themselves publicly from their prior errors. 16 Part of the problem in Britain and the United States was the paucity of first-rate historians who had concerned themselves with recent German history before 1939. Most American scholars interested in Europe explored the common cultural heritage with Great Britain or worked on the impulses of the Enlightenment and the revolution emanating from France. In contrast to such a shared heritage, Germany seemed rather problematic, attracting only the interest of diplomatic historians like Sidney Fay or

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The past as prologue

and the ways in which collective historical experiences, channelled through pervading values and norms, play a role in defining interests and thus shaping policy choices. Reflecting on the critical junctures and ruptures that characterise German history over the course of the past 100 years, the aptness of Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 2 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 2 Germany and the use of force strategic culture to a consideration of contemporary security policy is clear. The deleterious relationship that obtained between the military and politics in

in Germany and the use of force
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significance in the fact that Berlin’s newly renovated and curated German Historical Museum (Deutsches Historisches Museum (DHM)) stands on the site of the GDR’s former flagship Museum of German History (Museum für deutsche Geschichte (MdG))? In her speech at the DHM’s opening ceremony in June 2006, chancellor Angela Merkel began with a reference to the East German associations of the museum’s location and collections, using Cold War

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to trace a line of the ‘rise’ of planning, or even the ‘rise’ of the expert or rational discourse, important as both of these are. By assessing the ways that élite groups explored their faith in environmental determinism, by investigating their attempts to ‘reconfigure urban order and identity’,2 the book will address other themes central to many contemporary debates in historical writing. It will directly address the historicisation of modernity and the ways historians use space, and thereby also offer indirect comment on the writing of German history in general

in Germany’s other modernity