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Elite European migrants in the British Empire

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

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German encounters abroad, 1798-1914

With an eye to recovering the experiences of those in frontier zones of contact, Savage worlds maps a wide range of different encounters between Germans and non-European indigenous peoples in the age of high imperialism. Examining outbreaks of radical violence as well as instances of mutual co-operation, it examines the differing goals and experiences of German explorers, settlers, travellers, merchants, and academics, and how the variety of projects they undertook shaped their relationship with the indigenous peoples they encountered.

Whether in the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas or Africa, within Germany’s formal empire or in the imperial spaces of other powers, Germans brought with them assumptions about the nature of extra-European peoples. These assumptions were often subverted, disrupted or overturned by their own experience of frontier interactions, which led some Germans to question European ‘knowledge’ of these non-European peoples. Other Germans, however, signally failed to shift from their earlier assumptions about indigenous people and continued to act in the colonies according to their belief in the innate superiority of Europeans.

Examining the multifaceted nature of German interactions with indigenous populations, the wide ranging research presented in this volume offers historians and anthropologists a clear demonstration of the complexity of frontier zone encounters. It illustrates the variety of forms that agency took for both indigenous peoples and Germans in imperial zones of contact and poses the question of how far Germans were able to overcome their initial belief that, in leaving Europe, they were entering ‘savage worlds’.

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Germany, space and modernity
Leif Jerram

M1054 JERRAM TEXT M/UP.qxd:Andy Q7.3 18/10/07 10:04 Page 192 Conclusion: Germany, space and modernity The book started out in the Introduction by identifying three intellectual themes which it wished to address: the importance of space and ideas about space in understanding urban history; the complex ways that the category of modernity is modelled in contemporary discourse; and, indirectly, the metanarratives of German history. The subsequent chapters focused on the people who manipulated urban space in the service of a particular set of goals – especially

in Germany’s other modernity
Twentieth-century Germany in the debates of Anglo-American international lawyers and transitional justice experts
Annette Weinke

remained imbued with dichotomous notions of German history. ‘A guilty despoiler of international law’: rights imagination from the First World War to the Second World War When war broke out in 1914, most internationalists considered this a heavy setback for their ideas and aspirations. Many adherents of IL and ‘scientific pacifism’ declared their loyalty to the war efforts of their political and military leaderships. But as Glenda Sluga has recently noted, within ‘the spate of a year, the conflict’s furious and relentless course had revived the relevance of

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Monarchy, military, colonialism, fascism and decolonization
Diana M. Natermann

colonial masculinity, this chapter has looked at how the Duke managed to stay afloat during periods of varying ruptures within German history. A gendered biographical analysis such as the current one allows us to connect otherwise seemingly disconnected national and global historical events with each other. It takes into account the passing of time and how particular skills from the past can help the transition into different times despite societal and political changes in particular. This case study has enabled an

in Global biographies
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

were fought about the university and its mission. All in all, this phase comes across as one of the most debate-intensive periods in modern German history – fully comparable to the 1920s, the late 1940s, and the 1960s. Several specific circumstances imparted particular fervour to the debate. The years following 2000 witnessed the publication of several works which revealed the serious condition in which the German educational system found itself. The first report that PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) presented in 2001 undoubtedly came in for the

in Humboldt and the modern German university
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The German Revolution of 1918–19 and the passing of the GDR
Matthew Stibbe

While the thirteen months between September 1989 (beginnings of the peaceful collapse of the East German state) and October 1990 (German reunification on western terms) certainly constitute a major turning point in twentieth-century German history, it is worth noting that afterwards, the events of this time were rarely constructed with the same

in Debates on the German Revolution of 1918–19
Changing images of Germany in International Relations

This volume traces changing images of Germany in the field of International Relations (IR). Images of countries are mental representations with audio-visual and narrative dimensions that identify typical or even unique characteristics. This book focuses on perceptions of Germany from the English-speaking world and on the role they played in the development of twentieth-century IR theory. When the discipline originated, liberal internationalists contrasted cooperative foreign policies with inherently aggressive Prussianism. Early realists developed their ideas with reference to the German fight against the Treaty of Versailles. Geopoliticians and German emigre scholars relied on German history when they translated historical experiences into social-scientific vocabularies. The book demonstrates that few states have seen their image change as drastically as Germany during the century. After the Second World War, liberals, lawyers, and constructivists developed new theories and concepts in view of the Nuremberg trials, the transformation of the former enemy into an ally of the West, and Germany’s new commitment to multilateralism. Today, IR theorists discuss the perplexing nature of ‘civilian power’ Germany – an economic giant but a military dwarf. Yet the chapters in this volume also show that there has never been just one image of Germany, but always several standing next to each other in a sometimes compatible and sometimes contradictory manner.

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Helen Boak

The Weimar Republic, fourteen years of turbulent political, economic, social and cultural change, has attracted significant attention from historians, primarily because they are seeking to explain the Nazis’ accession to power in 1933. In their search for continuities in German history, German historians in the 1960s and 1970s espoused the view that Germany had followed a special path, a Sonderweg , in which, following the failure of bourgeois liberals to unify Germany in 1848, the German nation-state created by Prussian military might in 1871 remained a

in Women in the Weimar Republic
Transatlantic debates about the Nazi past
Konrad H. Jarausch

themselves publicly from their prior errors. 16 Part of the problem in Britain and the United States was the paucity of first-rate historians who had concerned themselves with recent German history before 1939. Most American scholars interested in Europe explored the common cultural heritage with Great Britain or worked on the impulses of the Enlightenment and the revolution emanating from France. In contrast to such a shared heritage, Germany seemed rather problematic, attracting only the interest of diplomatic historians like Sidney Fay or

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered