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Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.

Moral prevention work with girls
Leanne McCormick

, methods employed and the wider social and political context of moral and preventative work. In particular the role of the Girl Guides, Girls’ Friendly Society (GFS), and Girls’ Auxiliary (GA) will be considered. These organisations were largely based in Protestant churches, and while reference will be made to Catholic organisations, difficulty of access to archival material prevents detailed discussion of them. As well as archival material, interviews were carried out with twelve women who were involved in these organisations before 1945. Girls’ Friendly Society There

in Regulating sexuality
Baden-Powell, Scouts and Guides, and an imperial ideal
Allen Warren

seem to exemplify more clearly the popular face of imperialism than the twin creations of the defender of Mafeking – the Scouting and Guiding movements. The content of the first edition of Baden-Powell’s handbook, Scouting for Boys , published in early 1908, and his later collaborative work with his sister Agnes, The Handbook for Girl Guides or How Girls can help build the Empire , published

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
J.S. Bratton

clumsier manifestations; these did not on the whole outlive the charged atmosphere of the first years of the century. But it is also present in the making of a more extensive body of story-telling which sprang directly from the endeavour of didactic writers to influence the modern girl through their tales. This is the fiction associated with the Girl Guide Movement. How imperialistic the early Guide Movement

in Imperialism and juvenile literature

Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this truer than in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. It both reflects popular attitudes, ideas and preconceptions and it generates support for selected views and opinions. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times: in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. It seeks to examine in detail the articulation and diffusion of imperialism in the field of juvenile literature by stressing its pervasiveness across boundaries of class, nation and gender. It analyses the production, distribution and marketing of imperially-charged juvenile fiction, stressing the significance of the Victorians' discovery of adolescence, technological advance and educational reforms as the context of the great expansion of such literature. An overview of the phenomenon of Robinson Crusoe follows, tracing the process of its transformation into a classic text of imperialism and imperial masculinity for boys. The imperial commitment took to the air in the form of the heroic airmen of inter-war fiction. The book highlights that athleticism, imperialism and militarism become enmeshed at the public schools. It also explores the promotion of imperialism and imperialist role models in fiction for girls, particularly Girl Guide stories.

Marnie Hay

in September 1909. Baden-Powell was opposed to including girls in his scouting organisation because he thought they would inhibit boys from joining. Instead, his sister Agnes formed the Girl Guides in 1910, initially attracting about 8,000 girls. 26 When the Girl Guides were first established, the organisation’s primary goal was to create ‘good wives and mothers for the British Empire’, seeking to nurture femininity and domesticity in girls. Such a conservative goal may have contributed to the Girl Guides’ failure in their early years to expand as quickly as the

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23
The founding of the FANY 1907–14
Janet Lee

-Powell, the girls were initially involved in scouting activities and healthy outdoor recreation. Since this was not what the leaders of the boys’ scouting movement had anticipated, the Girl Scouts was transformed and co-opted by Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell into the Girl Guides: a movement that would not disrupt existing gender hierarchies and would instead function to reinforce traditional gender socialization through the teaching of womanly skills. The Girl Guides thus became a 31 32 War girls way to impose character training on girls and help them

in War girls
Abstract only
Leanne McCormick

research carried out on the relationship between girls’ organisations and moral prevention work. Carol Dyhouse, Brian Harrison and Bartley have all referred to the role of the Girls’ Friendly Society (GFS) in the campaign to maintain female moral standards but the organisation has not received close scrutiny.19 Similarly, discussion of the Girl Guides has tended to focus on their relationship with the Scout movement and the role of the organisation in assisting with empire building.20 Richard Voletz has, however, expounded the theory that the Guides provided a solution

in Regulating sexuality
Marnie Hay

membership and activities of youth organisations in European countries. Many older male members of youth groups enlisted in their states’ armed forces. In Britain and Ireland, older members of the boys’ brigades and the Boy Scouts enlisted in the British armed forces. Even a few Fianna members joined the British forces, despite their pledge not to do so. 67 Girl Guides supported the war effort by joining Voluntary Aid Detachments (VADs). Although the British War Office had started the VAD scheme in August 1909 in order to ‘supplement the medical organization of the

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23
The communist children’s movement
Thomas Linehan

the Fife communist children’s group, recalled that Miller, a member of the Cowdenbeath Children’s Section, eventually ‘became a miner and the miners in his pit elected him as their delegate’.30 For Docherty, who nurtured him to political maturity, Miller ‘never forgot his training as a child’.31 The CPGB’s children’s movement claimed that it was providing the child with an alternative experience to that which could be found in the so-called bourgeois children’s organisations, such as the Wolf Cubs, Church Lads’ Brigades, Girl Guides and Boy Scouts. Regarding the

in Communism in Britain 1920–39