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Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

When the talking stops
Carole Gomez

According to the International Olympic Committee and FIFA, the independence of sport is one of the most sacrosanct principles. Proclaimed in the Olympic and FIFA Charters, the ‘autonomy’ of sport has to be protected and preserved. Yet, in light of the financial dimension of sport alone, its separation from politics is in reality a myth. In the social stakes, sport has become a classic field of intervention for politics. In this light sport may be seen as an ideal way to sanction or punish a state that is considered unacceptable. The sports boycott then becomes a diplomatic tool to be wielded alongside other political tools. The chapter presents a conceptual understanding of boycotts and their place in global diplomacy, as well as familiar examples from the Cold War and more recently.

in Sport and diplomacy
Concluding thoughts on sport and diplomacy
Aaron Beacom and J. Simon Rofe

critical analysis. That it has ended by pointing to this wide range of areas that require further attention suggests a burgeoning field of study. Notes   1 Aaron Beacom, International Diplomacy and the Olympic Movement: The New Mediators (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).   2 Richard Epsy, The Politics of the Olympic Games (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1979).   3 Iver B. Neumann, Diplomatic Sites: A Critical Enquiry (London: Hurst, 2013), 121–46.   4 Alison Holmes and J. Simon Rofe, Global Diplomacy: Theories, Types and Models (Boulder, CO

in Sport and diplomacy
Iver B. Neumann

evidence today has increased the number of people doing diplomatic work enormously, and has lent to global diplomacy a much, much more socially dense quality than it had only a hundred years ago. Whereas the number of diplomats on the eve of the First World War could be counted in four-digit figures, diplomats working for the state today are counted in six-digit figures, and if we add international civil servants, activists in non-governmental organizations, consultants, spin doctors and so on, we probably reach a seven-digit figure. Conclusion The evolutionary

in Diplomatic tenses
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Military operations
Michael Clarke

remain one, it made sense to preserve its nuclear force as an insurance policy and as leverage into global diplomacy and arms control negotiations (Quinlan 2011 : 220; Stocker 2007 ). Critics wonder whether strategic reasoning should really be so casual; nuclear weapons as afterthoughts (Stephens 2006 ). This wide span of argument is not replicated in the same way in the US and hardly evident in France – Europe’s only other nuclear power – nor within nuclear-armed Israel. There is no discernible public

in The challenge of defending Britain
Anthony Alan Shelton

circulated outside of the region, in this case in Belgium and the Netherlands (1993–1994).24 These tours were sponsored by the Peruvian or Colombian governments and coincided with major cultural initiatives,25 which acted as ‘intricate, multilayered engines of global diplomacy’.26 These spectacular blockbuster exhibitions, from their lenders’ points of view, attempted to garner national prestige, project a glorious past, reassert culture as the cornerstone of national identity and promote commercial interest, thereby making them an integral part of soft diplomacy

in Curatopia
Ben O’Loughlin

many of its founders believed. Foreign policymakers charged with making war and peace will continue to think in these terms. Neumann argues: If it had not been a Christian variety of the theme that we are all God’s children that had informed global diplomacy, it would in all probability have been some variation on the same theme. (Neumann 2011, 311) Does this leave us trapped? Neumann continues: As Foucault (1997, 147–​8) once remarked, the important question ‘isn’t whether a culture without restraint is possible or even desirable, but whether the system or 33 34

in Image operations
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Wilhelm Vosse and Paul Midford

Center for Asian Studies, Asie.Vision , 35 (October): 1–29. Tsuruoka, M., 2015. ‘Japan–Europe Relations: Toward a Full Political and Security Partnership’, in Tatsumi, Y. (ed.), Japan’s Global Diplomacy: Views from the Next Generation (The Henry L. Stimson Center), pp. 43–53. Tsuruoka, M., 2016. ‘ Ō sh ū ni okeru d ō mei, sh ū dan b ō ei, sh ū dantekijieiken — aratana ky ō i e no nat ō EU ni yoru tai ō ’ [Alliances, Collective Defence and the Right of Collective Self-Defence in Europe: NATO and EU responses to New

in Japan's new security partnerships
Alexander Cárdenas and Sibylle Lang

Group, 2007), 5. 30 Woodhouse, ‘Peacekeeping, peace culture and conflict resolution’, 488. 31 Soeters and Manigart (eds), Military Cooperation, 6. 32 Tresch, ‘Cultural and political challenges’, 10. 33 J. Simon Rofe, in Alison Holmes with J. Simon Rofe, Global Diplomacy: Theories, Types and Models (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2016), 39. 34 Tresch, ‘Cultural and political challenges’, 11. 35 See, for instance, G. Lloyd and G. van Dyk, ‘The challenges, roles and functions ROFE___9781526131058_Print.indd 45 11/06/2018 09:15 46 Concepts and history of civil

in Sport and diplomacy
Making sense of the rise of China and India
Joy Y. Zhang and Saheli Datta Burton

's CanSino Ebola vaccine coincided with the Chinese Communist Party's 19th National Congress. ‘Chinese’ ingenuity was celebrated in helping to address a public health threat in Africa and highlighted as a testament to China's role as a responsible nation, committed to improving global ‘common (health) security’ (Gan, 2017 ). The ambition of using science both as a status booster and a tool for global diplomacy was echoed in the headline of CanSino's double-page advertisement in Nature , which describes CanSino's work as ‘a best shot at global public health response

in The elephant and the dragon in contemporary life sciences