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Kevern Verney

. When African American history began to command more serious attention in the mid-1960s, the generation of historians who, as young adults, had had direct personal experience of the Great Depression and the Second World War began to reach the age of retirement. The younger members of the profession who replaced them had had a different life perspective. Their formative years had been shaped by the Cold War, the conflict in Vietnam, and the rise of Martin Luther King and the black Civil Rights Movement within the United States. The labour historian Bruce Nelson thus

in The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America
Author: Kevern Verney

The blossoming of interest in black history since the 1950s was directly linked to the rise of Martin Luther King and the post-Second World War Civil Rights Movement. The advances achieved in desegregation and black voting rights since the 1950s suggested that this was a destination that King's children, and African Americans as a whole, would ultimately reach. In the inter-war years there were indications that some scholars were willing to examine the more depressing realities of black life, most notably in a series of academic studies on lynching. The book discusses the approach of Du Bois to the academic studies on black migrants from a sociological perspective. When African American history began to command more serious attention in the mid-1960s, the generation of historians who had had direct personal experience of the Great Depression and the Second World War began to reach the age of retirement. The book also examines the achievements of race leaders like Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael, the Black Power Movement and Black Nationalism of the 1960s. In a 1996 study, political scientist Robert C. Scholarly debate on the African American experience from the 1890s through to the early 1920s gathered momentum with fresh studies on the spread of racial segregation and black migration to the cities. The rise of feminism and popularity of women's history prompted academic researchers to pay attention to the issue of gender in African American history. Stereotyped depictions of African Americans in US popular culture are also discussed.

The past, present and future of social democracy and the welfare state

This book outlines the reasons for the development of and need for social democracy and the welfare state. It begins with the reaffirmation that post-2008 Anglo-America has seen the greatest concentration of wealth since the Great Depression, some nine decades earlier. The book reviews the thought of classical liberals like Adam Smith, democratic theorists like Alexis De Tocqueville and Matthew Arnold, and early social democrats like John Stuart Mill and Beatrice Webb. It further details the reasons for the derailing of the welfare state. Milton Friedman's ideas about the free market were institutionalized by Ronald Reagan in the US and Margaret Thatcher in the UK, both of whom dismantled the welfare state, or as much of it as possible. The book talks about the collapse of the Grand Narrative of the Left in the 1980s and 1990s. How this led to the 'great forgetting' in Anglo-America, and to a lesser extent in continental European social democracies and welfare states as well, is discussed. The book argues that 'forgetting' the past success of social democracy has been costly. It highlights that globalization does not explain unemployment in Anglo-America; nor is it the cause of inequality in either the US or the UK. A comparison of Anglo-America's social model with the European social model of the welfare and social democratic states of continental Europe, follows. Even with the high unemployment rates of the European Union, most of Europe is still as economically efficient as the US and the UK.

Stephen Tallents and the birth of a progessive media profession
Author: Scott Anthony

Public relations was established in Britain by a group of liberal intellectuals in the aftermath of the slump. This book argues that the development was a product of the Great Depression. It challenges the template of British public relations history popularised by Professor Sam Black. While Civil Servants began to develop ideas about the necessity of public relations, state use of 'propaganda' during the Great War had been a controversial intervention that cast a grim shadow across the postwar period. Sir Stephen Tallents stands at the centre of this story, touching every significant public relations innovation in early twentieth-century Britain. The book tracks the development of public relations through the peaks and troughs of Tallents's career, which is to build a holistic understanding of the discipline's political, professional, organisational and personal genesis. Transferred to the Empire Marketing Board (EMB), Tallents saw an imaginative correlation between Frank Pick's co-ordination of the existing underground railway companies with Britain's relationship to its Empire. The EMB Film Unit established in 1928 was crucial to the development of this radical function of public relations. Introducing public relations at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Ministry of Information pitted Tallents's subtle sensibility against more powerful ideological, institutional and political competition. Under Tallents, the General Post Office (GPO) produced a range of educational materials, supplying schools with educational posters, toy telephone sets, model post offices and instructional pamphlets on the history of communication. He and others formed the Institute of Public Relations in 1948.

Author: Helen Boak

The Weimar Republic, with it fourteen years of turbulent political, economic, social and cultural change, has attracted significant attention from historians primarily because they are seeking to explain the Nazis' accession to power in 1933. This book explores the opportunities and possibilities that the Weimar Republic offered women and presents a comprehensive survey of women in the economy, politics and society of the Weimar Republic. The Republic was a post-war society, and hence, the book offers an understanding of the significant impact that the First World War had on women and their roles in the Weimar Republic. The book also explores to what extent the Weimar Republic was 'an open space of multiple developmental opportunities' for women and considers the changes in women's roles, status and behavior during the Republic. It discusses women's participation in Weimar politics, as voters, elected representatives, members of political parties and targets of their propaganda, and as political activists outside the parliamentary arena. The book investigates the impact, if any, on women's employment of the two major economic crises of the Republic, the hyperinflation of 1922-23 and the Depression in the early 1930s. It describes the woman's role within the family, primarily as wife and mother, the impact of the changes in family and population policy and attitudes towards female sexuality. The Weimar Republic also witnessed significant changes in women's lives outside the home as they accessed the public realm to pursue a variety of interests.

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Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers
Alison Hulme

79 6 Consumer thrift: Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers The Great Depression, thrift and consumer rights The previous chapter examined how thrift, as manifested through practices of consuming less, making do, or simply not consuming, was galvanised as a practice to aid the economic, and to some extent ideological, survival of nations. In contrast, this chapter shows how history very quickly came to employ a contrasting logic when it came to promoting action on the part of citizens. It explores an opposite form of thrift –​that of being a

in A brief history of thrift
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The end of campaigning, 1930s–1961
Lea M. Williams

in the anti-tuberculosis, suffrage, and anti-opium campaigns for two decades. At times, her fatigue with being vigilant and outspoken in support of these causes made her want to retire from the constant struggle to improve the world around her. Ultimately, circumstances external to her would slow down her days of intense campaigning. The Great Depression curtailed her income and that of Emily Chadbourne, forcing them to return to the United States, where there was much less interest in the anti-opium campaign now that

in Ellen N. La Motte
Factory landscapes, leisure and the model employee
Helena Chance

on their promotion of horticulture between the wars,87 the role of the factory itself and its landscape department in mentoring and promoting civic improvement has not been ­sufficiently acknowledged.88 Another important contribution of factory grounds to social policy and one that will form the subject of future research, is their role in food production in times of economic depression and in wartime. During the Great Depression in America, many companies made land available for ‘community gardens’ where employees or the unemployed could grow vegetables. The B. F

in The factory in a garden
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Pagnol as auteur
Brett Bowles

France’s difficult transition to modernity in the context of the Great Depression: the persistence of regional identity among increasingly strong national cohesion; the erasure of rural culture by urbanisation; generational conflict between parents who stress familial duty and children who seek self-fulfilment and independence; changes in traditional gender roles, particularly with regard to sexuality, and the consequences of

in Marcel Pagnol
Gavin Wilk

became a major labour leader.15 As the Great Depression continued to affect communities, certain individuals adopted a transient lifestyle in order to secure employment. Illegally riding freight trains enabled these job seekers to travel far distances for free.16 In Cleveland, Achill Island IRA veteran Joseph Moran, who arrived in the US in 1923, according to his niece left his family and friends in the early 1930s and became a hobo. After travelling to San Francisco Moran’s health rapidly deteriorated and, in 1933, he died in one of the city’s homeless shelters

in Transatlantic defiance