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In their medical work, the missionaries had sought to gain sympathy though their compassionate response to personal crisis. A similar principle was invoked during famines, but now the crisis was all-encompassing, and the need for help became exponentially greater. A great famine that began in 1899 brought radical changes in the mission to the Bhils. Existing staff fell ill and

in Missionaries and their medicine

The Protestant Orphan Society became a social bridge that linked together throughout the Church of Ireland the humble poor and the wealthy and the great. This book examines the work of the Protestant Orphan Society in Dublin (DPOS) against the background of over a century of political, religious and social upheaval from Catholic emancipation, the Great Famine, social reforms to Independence. It first identifies the founders and supporters of the DPOS and their motivation for doing so. It asks why the Church of Ireland invested in the children of the church at this time. The book then analyses the Society's development, the grounds for support of private versus public poor relief for Protestant widows and children and stresses the crucial role that women played in the Societies' work. It examines the child welfare system implemented by the DPOS, and the extent to which its policies were forward thinking and child and family centred. The opposing views of the extensive social service carried out by PO Societies and the meaning of the charity for the Church of Ireland laity, particularly women, are explored. The book further examines applicant profiles, widows' reduced circumstances and health, attitudes to children's health, and bereavement and the attendant emotional effects. Using individual case histories the chapter examines applicant case histories which include Sean O'Casey's sister.

The poor laws were a fundamental component of nineteenth-century government throughout the United Kingdom. Ratepayer, pauper, poor law guardian or functionary, almost everyone had an interest in the poor law system. This book presents a study of the nature and operation of the Irish poor law system in the post-famine period. It traces the expansion of the system to encompass a wide range of welfare services, and explains the ideological and political context in which the expansion took place. After a general survey of the poor law system in the nineteenth century, the book analyses the poor law system in Ireland and the role of central government in overseeing the system's operation. It explores the impact of board nationalisation both on poor law administration and on the relationship between central and local administrators. Nationalist guardians were quick to realise that their powers under the Evicted Poor Protection Act could be used to support participants in the land campaign. The government's approach to distress in 1879-1880 was intended to avoid the mistakes made during the Great Famine. A more nuanced analysis of the labourers acts is provided here encompassing their origin, reception and operation. The poor law system catered predominantly for women, but was administered and staffed predominantly by men. The strength of Irish nationalism lay in its ability to construct a cohesive political community that cut across gender and class boundaries. By redefining criteria for relief, nationalist guardians helped to introduce a greater degree of flexibility into the relief system.

A Christian modernity for tribal India

In November 1880 the Reverend Charles Thompson arrived at Kherwara, Rajasthan, India, to establish the first Anglican mission to the Bhils, a primitive tribe, by going amongst them as a healer. This book sets out the history of the interaction between the missionaries and the Bhils, a history of missionary medicine, and how certain Bhils forged their own relationship with modernity. During the 1870s, the Church Missionary Society declared its intention to open more missions 'among the non-Aryan hill-people', and the Bishop of Lahore wanted more missions to work amongst the 'aboriginal' Bhils. A great famine that began in 1899 brought radical changes in the mission to the Bhils. After the famine, many of the Bhagats, a local sect, became convinced that the sinless deity was the God of Christians, and they decided to convert en masse to Christianity. The missionaries working amongst the Bhils believed that Satan was in their midst, who was constantly enticing their hard-won converts to relinquish their new faith and revert to their 'heathen' ways. It was argued that 'heathen' beliefs and culture could be attacked only if female missionaries were required to work with native women. Mission work had always been hampered by a lack of funds, and at one time, the hospital at Lusadiya had to dissuade many would-be inpatients from coming for treatment due to lack of beds. The book also deals with the work of the mission in the post-colonial India, which laid more stress to healing than evangelism.

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British Isles, or indeed anywhere else in Europe, until it was overtaken by Italy late in the century. Irish emigration was widely associated with the Great Famine, with the suffering and endless rancour about the causes of both. Famine and the mass evacuation of Ireland scorched the Irish memory, was central in its literature, in its iconography, and shaped its entire political cast. This chapter deals with Ireland’s place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. America and Australasia drew heavily on Ireland: the antipodeans

in The genesis of international mass migration
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preserve the health, morals, respectability and religion of Protestant orphans, the rising Protestant generation. This study examines the pioneering work and social service legacy of the DPOS, one of the most significant Protestant charities in nineteenthcentury Ireland, against the background of over a century of political, religious and social upheaval from Catholic emancipation, the Great Famine, social reforms to Independence. While the Society’s work pertains to the broader discourse on religious rivalry which merits attention, this study is intended primarily as an

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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settling estates and of arranging pin money and jointure for women were in place in the wealthy landed class; after 1850, the impact of the Great Famine on landed estates changed the economic context within which landed families existed. The limited sample facilitated a wide use of sources, making it possible to compare the legal and theoretical position of women and property in different families with their actual experience. In common with many of their class, these families left vast archives of sources, composed of personal letters, estate correspondence and diaries

in Women, marriage and property in wealthy landed families in Ireland, 1750–1850

formative period, characterised by importation, incorporation and development of various European forms, gestures and instruments. At the heart of these developments was the musical and social ascendancy of the Irish pipes and the pipers. They inherited the repertoire and the social function of the harpers who operated in close contact with dancing masters, singers in Irish and English, and fiddle players with Scottish tunes and techniques. On the eve of the Great Famine, George Petrie and James Goodman were collecting tunes almost exclusively from pipers. It is only

in Are the Irish different?
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The relief of distress

significance far beyond the immediate crisis, having political as well as material implications. Food shortages in the second half of the nineteenth century inevitably brought back memories of the Great Famine, and invited comparison with it. Ministers were acutely aware that should deaths from starvation occur, they would ultimately be held responsible. Irish politicians, community leaders, and officials, were well aware of ministerial sensitivity on this topic and had no qualms about exploiting it. When the Local Government Board wanted to persuade John Morley to support a

in Politics, pauperism and power in late nineteenth-century Ireland
Aspects of Irish return migration, 1600–1845

permanently and whose resettlement was undoubtedly more likely to cause discontent and spark friction. While there are few surviving descriptions of the emigrant’s return there are other references in emigrant correspondence to visits being made across the Atlantic in the decades before the Great Famine. A letter of 1827 mentions the possibility of a Robert Campbell, from Savannah, Georgia, tagging on a visit to Ireland to a business trip to London. 68 Another reference in a letter of 1838 discussed the possibility of a

in Emigrant homecomings