other faiths and denominations in the West and black–white racial tensions in the South. 2
The ‘GreatMigration’ of 1915–25, during which some 1.25 million blacks left the South to settle in major urban centres of the North like New York and Chicago, was another issue that attracted the attention of white Americans. In the South, planters feared that they would be left with insufficient labourers to farm their lands. In the North, industrialists may have welcomed the migrants, as a vital addition to the expanding factory workforce, but ordinary city dwellers were
The blossoming of interest in black history since the 1950s was directly linked to the rise of Martin Luther King and the post-Second World War Civil Rights Movement. The advances achieved in desegregation and black voting rights since the 1950s suggested that this was a destination that King's children, and African Americans as a whole, would ultimately reach. In the inter-war years there were indications that some scholars were willing to examine the more depressing realities of black life, most notably in a series of academic studies on lynching. The book discusses the approach of Du Bois to the academic studies on black migrants from a sociological perspective. When African American history began to command more serious attention in the mid-1960s, the generation of historians who had had direct personal experience of the Great Depression and the Second World War began to reach the age of retirement. The book also examines the achievements of race leaders like Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael, the Black Power Movement and Black Nationalism of the 1960s. In a 1996 study, political scientist Robert C. Scholarly debate on the African American experience from the 1890s through to the early 1920s gathered momentum with fresh studies on the spread of racial segregation and black migration to the cities. The rise of feminism and popularity of women's history prompted academic researchers to pay attention to the issue of gender in African American history. Stereotyped depictions of African Americans in US popular culture are also discussed.
Mediterranean shore. But this has also been true in the past
The origins and destinations of flows change over time. In modern
times within Europe, migrations and the mobility of populations for a
long time flowed from the Mediterranean to the more developed and
industrialised countries of central and northern Europe. Intra-European
migrations were already important at the time of the ‘GreatMigration’
at the turn of the twentieth century, when the Americas were the most
important destination. But they became central in the post-war years at
the time of the
, such as the GreatMigration, 1915–25, or lynching, attracted the attention of the wider American public.
During the 1950s and 1960s the spread of more liberal attitudes and values, reflected in the rise of Martin Luther King and the post-war Civil Rights Movement, inspired scholars to investigate the African American past. They eloquently portrayed the historical sufferings of black communities and felt moral outrage at such racial injustice in a way that would have been incomprehensible for many earlier scholars, who saw such inequalities as natural and inevitable
faltered; industry and commerce decayed. Since the eastern regions of the Empire remained stronger, wealthier and more unified, Emperor Constantine moved the imperial capital to Byzantium (Constantinople) in AD 330. Soon the great Roman Empire split into a Western and an Eastern half.
In this weakened state, the Empire faced a sudden wave of greatmigrations (380–450). It was mortally challenged by the Goths who came from south Russia, threatened Constantinople about AD 380, tore through Greece in 396 and sacked Rome in 410. The entire Empire shook. Its
Citizens of the World (3rd edn; Boston: David
Walker, 1829), p. 57.
6 It was well known, for example, that Garrison’s interactions with Baltimore’s free black
population, as well as reading Walker’s Appeal, moved him from support of colonisation and gradual emancipation toward demands for immediate, ‘radical’ abolition.
Mayer, All on Fire, esp. pp. 44–70.
7 Quoted in Steven Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural
South from Slavery to the GreatMigration (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2003),
8 For the best discussion of the very
Tangata o le moana: New Zealand and the People of the
Pacific (Wellington: Te Papa Press, 2012); Tony Simpson,
The Immigrants: The GreatMigration from Britain to New
Zealand, 1830–1890 (Auckland: Godwit, 1997).
See Smith, Hempenstall, and Goldfinch,
activity, despite the magnitude of the greatmigration from the
Caribbean. No cafés or book or record shops or dance halls carry
commemorative plaques, or retain a place in the larger collective
memory. 1 Even
educated opinion can still profess a certain puzzlement that there
could be such a thing as an intellectual tradition deriving
from the experience of the Caribbean, testament to the
maritime skills and the vast majority of the seasonal migrants to the
north east were natives of Lewis, Wester Ross and some parts of Skye and west
Sutherland, which were areas which possessed considerable fishing traditions in
their own right. Temporary employment in Caithness or Aberdeen blended well
with the customary cycle of fishing activity in the west as the high season in northeastern waters took place between the earlier herring fishery in the Minch and the
later white fishing in the western Highlands. At the busiest times there was a greatmigration to the
immigrant, claiming that women are ‘not seen as active agents in the greatmigration stories: they [are] either left behind, or taken along as part of the
man’s family’ (2000: 52). Similarly, Dawson observes that ‘[w]omen migrants
are … rendered invisible not simply by xenophobic public discourse but also
by dominant academic accounts of migration’ (2010: 182). Binchy overcomes
such an omission by granting the female immigrant a place of her own in the
novel. Ostensibly beautiful, Agnieszka works honestly and earnestly as a barmaid at a Dublin fashionable hotel