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An anthology of literary texts and contexts

This book is an anthology of selections from works dealing with same-sex love, desire, sexual acts, and relationships during the period 1550-1735 in early modern England. It presents religious and moral writings, pseudo-medical writings, criminal pamphlets, travel writings, and letters on same-sex desire. The condemnation of male and female same-sex sexual acts is embedded in the earliest Christian theology. The early modern medical, pseudo-medical, and anatomical texts in Latin are surprisingly reticent about the physiological and anatomical aspects of homoerotic sexuality and desire. Canon law had long condemned male same-sex sexual acts. The 1533-34 statute in England forbade male same-sex sexual acts but ignored female same-sex intercourse. English travel narratives dealing with the sexual customs of other cultures often present sexual licentiousness as endemic, sometimes touching specifically on sodomy and tribadism. The most detailed presentations of same-sex erotic relationships in non-European cultures are those relating to Turkey and the Turkish seraglio. Familiar letters, such as between James I and VI, could reveal personal secrets and be radically transgressive in their emphasis on fostering love and desire. The book discusses homo-sexual subculture during 1700-1730, translation of Latin and Greek texts, and numerous literature representing male and female same-sex erotic relationships. The largely 'socially diffused homosexuality' of the seventeenth century changed profoundly with 'clothes, gestures, language' connoting 'homosexuality'. The book shows how literary genres of male same-sex and female-sex desires such as Shakespeare's Sonnets, and Catherine Trotter's Agnes de Castro allow the modern reader to chart changes in their representation.

Thomas Heywood was unusual in the diversity and sheer quantity of his output, and fascinatingly individual in his classicism. This volume offers a ground-breaking investigation of his engagement with the classics across a writing career that spanned more than 40 years. It is the first in-depth study of his classicism, and it features a variety of perspectives. The introduction and twelve essays trace how the classics shaped Heywood’s writing in a wide variety of genres – translation, drama, epyllic and epic verse, compendia, epigrams, panegyrics and pamphlets – and informed both his many pageants and the warship he helped design for Charles I. Close readings demonstrate the depth and breadth of his classicism, establishing the rich influence of continental editions and translations of Latin and Greek texts, early modern mythographies, chronicles and the medieval tradition of Troy as revived by the Tudors. The essays probe Heywood’s habit of juxtaposing different and often disjunctive layers of a capaciously conceived ‘classical tradition’ in thought-provoking ways, attend to his use of the multiplicitous logic of myth to interrogate gender and heroism, and consider the way he turns to antiquity not only to celebrate but also to defamiliarise the theatrical or political present. Different contributions focus on A Woman Killed with Kindness, Oenone and Paris, Loves School, The Rape of Lucrece, Troia Britanica, the Ages plays, Gynaikeion, Pleasant Dialogues and Dramma’s, Apology for Actors and Sovereign of the Seas. Classical reception thus provides an illuminating, productively cross-generic angle for approaching Heywood’s prolific output and idiosyncratic aesthetic.

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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

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Victor Skretkowicz

, literature, politics, religion, rhetoric and translation. Because of the complexities relating to the ‘discovery, translation and publication of the Greek texts, the study of the artistry and politics of European erotic romance is best approached through a series of stepping-stones. This book is therefore in two parts, with each chapter divided into shorter digestible units. Part One

in European erotic romance
The world of Lucian in Thomas Heywood’s stage poetry
Camilla Temple

Florence in 1496. 15 It was in fact part of a select group of texts, which included the Greek Anthology and four of Euripides’ plays, that were printed in an innovative Greek text designed by Lascaris and Lorenzo d’Alopa. 16 This makes Lucian one of the first Greek texts to appear in print, most likely reflecting the author’s popularity with Renaissance Italians new to learning Greek as well as the popularity of Lucian in Byzantine literary culture. These factors probably explain why ‘by 1550 there were 270 printings of Lucian in circulation, including more than 60

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Tanya Pollard

. Although English engagement with Greek texts did not match that of the Continent, the English market in Continental Greek and Latin books was substantial. Books were imported into London across the channel from France or down the Rhine from Basel and German cities through the Low Countries, and sold at considerable profit through the London book trade. 8 Inventories of private libraries in

in Formal matters
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‘Ariachne’s broken woof’
Janice Valls- Russell, Agnès Lafont, and Charlotte Coffin

, Lucan, Lucian, Ausonius: the fact that they were not all readily available in English translation was no impediment to access. Students and scholars had access to Greek texts through primers and editions printed on the Continent: bilingual Latin–Greek editions and Latin translations of Euripides, Homer, Pausanias or Musaeus, whose Hero and Leander was one of the first texts printed in Greek, by the

in Interweaving myths in Shakespeare and his contemporaries
Nekau II and Psamtek II
Roger Forshaw

triremes were built, some for the northern sea and others in the Arabian gulf for the Erythraean Sea,44 whose slipways are still visible. And these he put to use when the need arose.’ The passage may refer to the construction of significantly more galleys than Nekau had inherited from Psamtek I, or perhaps to an upgrading of the Egyptian   egypt of the saite pharaohs fleet. It seems unlikely that these were actually triremes, triple-tier ships, as the first mention of the word trieres in a Greek text occurs in the second half of the sixth century.45 More likely

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
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Louise Hill Curth

common misconception that English books were the domain of ‘public’ readers, while medical practitioners consulted traditional Latin and Greek texts. While university-educated physicians undoubtedly could and did read classical books, it seems likely that many also ‘shared’ English translations with less-educated healers and laypeople. It also brings into question the division within vernacular texts, which could be referred to as ‘professional’ versus ‘popular’. Unfortunately, both terms are fraught with potential dangers and must be viewed with caution, whether

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700
Victor Skretkowicz

manuscript tradition in giving Kleitophon precedence over Leukippe in the title. This is the order retained in the derivative French and English translations. In 1601, the first Greek edition, printed with Greek text facing Latin, was produced by the Heidelberg printing house of the late scholar-publisher Hieronymus Commelinus. 12 The Greek half-title places Leukippe’s name before

in European erotic romance