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Alexander Samson

7 Spanish Tudor/English Habsburg The writing of historians on Mary’s position and status after her marriage to Philip is characterised by contradiction and inconsistency, resonant with the tensions apparent in the couple’s representation of themselves in the first few months of the reign. On one side of the debate concerning the reality of their co-monarchy, David Loades has argued that although Philip was not prevented inexorably by the marriage treaty, he ‘was baffled at every turn in his search for an effective role in English government’: as ‘king of England

in Mary and Philip
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Refugees in the era of the Great War

This book talks about the mass displacement of civilians, estimated to be 14 to 15 million, in the twentieth-century Europe during the First World War. It looks at the causes and consequences of the refugee crisis and its aftermath, and the attempts to understand its significance. Key sites of displacement extended from Belgium to Armenia, taking in France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, East Prussia, the Russian Empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and Serbia. The German army's occupation of Belgium, France, Poland and Lithuania prompted the mass flight of refugees, as did Russia's invasion of East Prussia in 1914. Jewish, Ruthenian and Polish civilians in the Habsburg Empire fled their homes or were deported by the military to distant locations. Following Italy's attack on Austria-Hungary in May 1915, the Habsburg authorities ordered around 100,000 Slovenian subjects of the empire to leave. The Austrian and Bulgarian invasion of Serbia brought about a humanitarian catastrophe as civilians and the remnants of the Serbian army sought safety elsewhere. However, mass flight of civilian refugees did not begin in 1914 nor did it come to an end in 1918. Muslim refugees fled to the relative safety of Anatolia in order to escape violent persecution by Bulgarian and other forces during the Balkan Wars on 1912-13. There were complex movements of population between Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey before 1914. The complex process of repatriation and resettlement affected soldiers and civilians alike and rarely took place in stable or peaceful circumstances.

The Armorial of Bianca Maria Sforza, Copied for August of Saxony by Lucas Cranach the Younger (Manchester, John Rylands Library, German MS. 2)
Ben Pope

German MS. 2 is a previously unstudied armorial dating from the mid-sixteenth century. This article shows that it was produced in the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Younger for Elector August of Saxony, and that it was copied from an earlier armorial of c.1500 which was kept in Cranach’s workshop, probably as reference material. Much of the original content and structure of this ‘old armorial’ has been preserved in Rylands German 2. On this basis, the original armorial can be located in a late fifteenth-century Upper German tradition of armorial manuscripts known as the ‘Bodensee’ group. It was also closely linked to the Habsburg dynasty, and appears to have been dedicated to Empress Bianca Maria Sforza. The armorial therefore opens significant new perspectives on the relationships between artists and heraldry and between women and heraldic knowledge, and on ways of visualising the Holy Roman Empire through heraldry.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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The marriage of Tudor England and Habsburg Spain

The co-monarchy of Mary I and Philip II put England at the heart of early modern Europe. This positive reassessment of their joint reign counters a series of parochial, misogynist and anti-Catholic assumptions, correcting the many myths that have grown up around the marriage and explaining the reasons for its persistent marginalisation in the historiography of Tudor England. Using new archival discoveries and original sources it argues for Mary as a great Catholic queen, while fleshing out Philip’s important contributions as king of England. It demonstrates the success and many positive achievements of this glittering dynastic union in everything from culture, music and art to cartography, commerce and exploration. Philip and Mary’s negative reputation derives from a particular version of English identity and reflects confessional differences in early modern English history. The acceptability of Mary’s foreign marriage will continue to reflect the evolving relationship between Britain and Europe, and its cultural politics. Moving from the commercial and strategic interests served by Anglo-Spanish alliances, it analyses the negotiations and marriage contract, Mary’s government, the Act for the Queen’s Regal Power, the Wyatt rebellion, the co-monarchy, gynophobic polemic, court culture and ceremony, bilingual lexicography, portraiture and print, and the historical (mis)fortunes of this glittering dynastic match.

Author: Julie Thorpe

This book is about the ideas and policies that characterized the rightward trajectory of Austrofascism in the 1930s, providing a fresh perspective on the debate over whether Austria was an authoritarian or fascist state. It is designed to introduce a range of issues confronting Austrian policy and opinion makers in the years prior to the Anschluss with Nazi Germany. The author argues that Austrofascism (not National Socialism) was the political heir of pan-Germanism in the Habsburg Monarchy. The book contributes to studies of inter-war Austria by introducing several case studies, including press and propaganda, minority politics, regionalism, immigration and refugees, as the issues that shaped Austria's political culture in the 1930s. Case studies of the German-nationalist press reveal the relationship between ideas and policy in the Austrofascist period. The book argues for a transnational approach to fascism in Austria, and situates the case studies within a broader context of Italian and German fascism. Placing the Austrian case against this backdrop of nationalism and fascism in Europe, it makes the discovery that Austrofascism was the product of larger European processes and events in the inter-war period.

A study of the Christian Social movement

Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites engages with and challenges some key narratives of one of the darkest periods in the history of Vienna; the rise and sustained presence of organised, politically directed antisemitism in the city between the late nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth. Sketching out first the longer-term background, it then focuses on central players in the antisemitic Christian Social movement, which flourished through an ideology of exclusion and prejudice. The work is built on considerable original research into both bourgeois social organisations and activists from the lower clergy, but it also exposes the role played in the development of antisemitism by the senior clergy in Vienna. In addition to a close examination of the antisemitic aspects of the Christian Socials, it analyses how other major social debates in this period impacted on their development as a group: national struggles, especially the desire for German unification; responses to the waves of poverty and social unrest that swept over Europe; and conservative and clerical reactions to modernity, such as liberalism and democracy – debates with a resonance far beyond Vienna. Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites tells its story across this long period, and for the first time in such detail, to give room to the gestation in ‘respectable’ society of antisemitism, an ideology that seemed to be dying in the 1860s, but which was revived and given new strength from the 1880s onwards, even surviving challenges from the more widely known Red Vienna of the 1920s and 1930s.

Security and defense realities of East-Central Europe
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

were to be divided and contested between the Ottoman and Austrian Habsburg Empires, while an autonomous, multicultural principality of Transylvania played on a balance of power between the two imperial sides. However, the loss of Hungarian sovereignty did not mean the end of Hungarian autonomous institutions or consciousness among the Magyar nobility and middle classes, which were spread all over the former lands of the

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
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A comparison of episodic war narratives during the Revolt in the Low Countries
Jasper van der Steen

-­torn society of the early modern Low Countries during the Revolt in the Netherlands. This major rebellion against Philip II of ­Spain – ­who was also overlord of the Netherlandish ­principalities – ­broke out in 1566. Although the hopes and expectations of Netherlandish rebels varied widely and the causes of the Revolt remain a topic of scholarly debate, in general the insurgents had two major grievances: Habsburg attempts at administrative centralization and the regime’s persecution of Protestants. Initially, a coalition of nobles had attempted to voice their grievances

in Early modern war narratives and the Revolt in the Low Countries
Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War
Martina Hermann

v 6 v ‘Cities of barracks’: refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War Martina Hermann The unprecedented mass displacement of civilians during the First World War represents a crucial component of the seminal catastrophe of the twentieth century. All belligerent nations confronted issues generated by large population movements. However, while enemy aggression and the loss of territory were the primary factors causing refugees to flee, at the same time, the multinational Habsburg Empire forcibly evacuated its own nationals

in Europe on the move
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Alexander Samson

Boleyn’s coronation and from swearing the oath of obedience to the Succession Act which made it law.14 The deterioration of Anglo-Habsburg commercial relations after the Boleyn marriage was halted by a treaty in June 1542, which renewed the exemption of English merchants from a prohibition on the export of goods from Spain in foreign ships when Spanish vessels were available; an exemption originally granted at the time of Henry’s betrothal to Catherine. It had been suspended by Mary of Hungary in retaliation against Henry VIII’s Navigation Act of 1540, which had made

in Mary and Philip