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Town meets country
Jill Liddington

Halifax in the early 1830s lay on the cusp of dramatic change: its old water-powered industry was being elbowed aside by larger steam-powered mills. Yet domestic crafts and traditional ways persisted right into mid-century. The juxtapositions were therefore dramatic, the tensions produced often brutal. And the boundary between Halifax and Shibden lay precisely where town met country. When Anne Lister returned home in 1832 she found herself living precisely on the fault line where the urban new encountered the anciently rural. When she walked

in Female Fortune
An Introduction
Jerrold Hogle

This essay introduces this special issue on ‘Romanticism and the “New Gothic”’, which contains revisions of essays presented at a special seminar at the 1999 joint conferences of the International Gothic Association (IGA) and the North American Society for the Study of Romanticism (NASSR) held in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Hogle argues that the ‘Gothic’ as a highly counterfeit and generically mixed mode in the eighteenth century was a quite new, rather than revived old, aesthetic which allowed for the disguised projection - or really abjection - of current middle-class cultural fears into symbols that only seemed antiquated, supernatural, or monstrous on the surface. Romantic writers thus faced this mode as a symbolic location where feared anomalies of their own moment could be faced and displaced, and such writers reacted to this possibility using some similar and quite different techniques. Post-Romantic writers, in turn, ranging from Emily Dickinson all the way to the writers and directors of modern films with Gothic elements, have since proceeded to make the Gothic quite new again, in memory of and reaction to Romantic-era uses of the new Gothic. This recurrent remaking of the Gothic comes less from the survival of certain features and more from the cultural purposes of displacing new fears into symbols that recall both the eighteenth-century Gothic and Romantic redactions of it. The papers in this special issue cover different points in this history of a complex relationship among aesthetic modes.

Gothic Studies
The path to economic crisis in Scotland
Author: Jonathan Hearn

This book takes a body of ethnographic data collected in 2001-2, during a year's fieldwork at the Bank of Scotland (BoS) and HBOS, and revisits it from the perspective of the 2014-16 period. It explores the tension between the 'ethnographic present' of the author's original research and the unavoidable alteration of perspective on that data that the economic crisis has created. The original research had been planned to take place in the BoS but in 2001, before the research began, BoS had merged with the Halifax to form HBOS. The book provides a long-term historical perspective on BoS/HBOS, from inception to the 2008 financial crisis, and then a consideration of the nature of historical explanation, under the rubric of 'theory'. The main attempts to explain the proximate causes of the 2008 crisis, as well as more encompassing political economic arguments about the trajectory and dynamics of capitalism are examined. The concept of 'culture' as applied to both national groups, Scots and English, and organizations, BoS and Halifax, are also dealt with. The book examines other governing concepts such as organisational change in the business world and social change, identity and the way Scottish and English experience their own personhood, and comparative nature of ethnographic research. The conclusion reviews and draws together the themes of the book, returning to the overarching question of historical perspective and explanation.

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The Anne Lister Diaries, 1833–36 - Land, gender and authority
Author: Jill Liddington

"Female Fortune is the book which inspired Sally Wainwright to write Gentleman Jack, now a major drama series for the BBC and HBO.

Lesbian landowner Anne Lister inherited Shibden Hall in 1826. She was an impressive scholar, fearless traveller and successful businesswoman, even developing her own coalmines. Her extraordinary diaries, running to 4–5 million words, were partly written in her own secret code and recorded her love affairs with startling candour. The diaries were included on UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register in 2011.

Jill Liddington’s classic edition of the diaries tells the story of how Anne Lister wooed and seduced neighbouring heiress Ann Walker, who moved in to live with Anne and her family in 1834. Politically active, Anne Lister door-stepped her tenants at the 1835 Election to vote Tory. And socially very ambitious, she employed architects to redesign both the Hall and the estate.

Yet Ann Walker had an inconvenient number of local relatives, suspicious of exactly how Anne Lister could pay for all her grand improvements. Tensions grew to a melodramatic crescendo when news reached Shibden of the pair being burnt in effigy.

This 2022 edition includes a fascinating Afterword on the recent discovery of Ann Walker’s own diary. Female Fortune is essential reading for those who watched Gentleman Jack and want to know more about the extraordinary woman that was Anne Lister.

Politics and Religion - December 1834–May 1835
Jill Liddington

would send the news to the papers (Halifax, Leeds and York), styling herself Marian daughter of Jeremy L– Esq of Skelfler House in this county [East Riding]. She said she had meant to do it in this way—I said there would be no impropriety in her marrying six months after my father's death…not to stay long here after his death and not to announce to me her marriage—it would be enough to see it in the papers. Whatever I did, I should do nothing from caprice or without a reason—that I sincerely wished her happy—that her best friend would probably [be] that person who

in Female Fortune
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September 1834–November 1834
Jill Liddington

Wilkinson and to enquire whether there was a front gallery-pew at liberty in Lightcliffe [church] and what would be the annual rent—if not, begged to know what pews were at liberty, as, during my stay at home, should be glad to be one of Mr W–'s congregation if I could get a good pew. Significantly, they chose to attend the Reverend Wilkinson's rural church, rather than Musgrave's parish church in Halifax itself: this would provide an easier setting for them, and fitted in with Ann's local landed status

in Female Fortune
How the other LEAs fared
Olivier Esteves

to avoid something of this nature until these people gradually find solutions to their accommodation problems throughout our communities, can we afford, on social and educational grounds, to let similar conditions grow up in any of our schools?” 128 the “desegregation” of english schools Table 12  West Yorkshire towns and immigrant children (1965–67) (towns in bold operated dispersal at some point between 1963 and 1986) Batley Bradford Dewsbury Halifax Huddersfield Keighley Leeds Number in 1965 1966 1967 Increase in % Immigrant children as % general

in The “desegregation” of English schools
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Ethnography, history and the vagaries of research
Jonathan Hearn

the research began, BoS had merged with the Halifax to form HBOS. In September 2008, massively overexposed by the crisis, HBOS was acquired by Lloyds TSB, in a deal orchestrated by the British Labour government to prevent a second bank failure after the collapse of Northern Rock a few months earlier. The time between my fieldwork (and the merger) and the acquisition of HBOS was a mere seven years – of rapid growth followed by spectacular failure. My overarching aim is to explore the tension between the ‘ethnographic present’ of the original research and the

in Salvage ethnography in the financial sector
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From the Bank of Scotland’s origins to HBOS and crisis
Jonathan Hearn

. British banking c.1695–1914 and the founding of BoS and of the Halifax Our story begins in the late seventeenth century. Scotland and England had shared a monarchy since 1603 and were soon to combine their independent parliaments in 1707. The first public British banks were established with the model of the Bank of Amsterdam in mind. It was established in 1609 in the context of a thriving Dutch commercial economy. It took in deposits of metal money and provided a system of credit between its members, and it was backed by the City of Amsterdam, giving confidence in its

in Salvage ethnography in the financial sector
June 1835–September 1835
Jill Liddington

cough etc—not a word about business or any mention of Captain Sutherland's name. M onday 29 In & out till 1 then sat with A–; wrote her copy of letter to Mr Gray …asking his advice what to do, there being no letter from Captain Sutherland. Ann Walker's many Halifax relatives included her cousin Mary, wife of William Henry Rawson, the woollen manufacturer who had sneered at Anne Lister at the canal meeting. Hauteur helped deal with such

in Female Fortune